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BioMed Research International
Volume 2017, Article ID 5216562, 7 pages
Research Article

Smoking, Gender, and Overweight Are Important Influencing Factors on Monocytic HLA-DR before and after Major Cancer Surgery

1Department of Anesthesiology and Operative Intensive Care Medicine, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Campus Charité Mitte and Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Berlin, Germany
2Sostana GmbH, Berlin, Germany

Correspondence should be addressed to Claudia Spies; ed.etirahc@seips.aidualc

Received 20 February 2017; Revised 24 May 2017; Accepted 9 July 2017; Published 8 August 2017

Academic Editor: Giuseppe Valacchi

Copyright © 2017 Gunnar Lachmann et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Background. Monocytic human leukocyte antigen D related (mHLA-DR) is essential for antigen-presentation. Downregulation of mHLA-DR emerged as a general biomarker of impaired immunity seen in patients with sepsis and pneumonia and after major surgery. Influencing factors of mHLA-DR such as age, overweight, diabetes, smoking, and gender remain unclear. Methods. We analyzed 20 patients after esophageal or pancreatic resection of a prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial (placebo group). mHLA-DR was determined from day of surgery (od) until postoperative day (pod) 5. Statistical analyses were performed using multivariate generalized estimating equation analyses (GEE), nonparametric multivariate analysis of longitudinal data, and univariate post hoc nonparametric Mann–Whitney tests. Results. In GEE, smoking and gender were confirmed as significant influencing factors over time. Univariate analyses of mHLA-DR between smokers and nonsmokers showed lower preoperative levels () and a trend towards lower levels on pod5 () in smokers. Lower mHLA-DR was seen in men on pod3 () and on pod5 (). Overweight patients (BMI > 25 kg/m2) had lower levels of mHLA-DR on pod3 () and pod4 (). Conclusion. Smoking is an important influencing factor on pre- and postoperative immune function while postoperative immune function was influenced by gender and overweight. Clinical trial registered with ISRCTN27114642.