Table 6: Perceived barriers to physical activity and gross motor skills development by location.

RuralLow-income urbanHigh-income urban

Resources

(i) Children do not have access to the same facilities as high-SES children.
(ii) Poverty is a root cause for many of the issues children face.
(iii) Technology was not a barrier to PA, because of lack of access.
(i) Children do not have access to the same facilities as high-SES children. Children often have to travel far for facilities, but this is not the primary barrier.
(ii) Poverty is a root cause for many of the issues children face. Money is one of the primary challenges for the school.
(iii) Technology was not a barrier to PA, because of lack of access.
(i) We are privileged to have very good facilities.
(ii) Some extracurricular activities are expensive, but we can usually afford it.
(iii) Technology was potentially the most significant barrier to PA in children.
“Our children in our community do not know how to swim because they don’t have those facilities to learn at. They don’t have even the soccer field where they can learn to play. Or netball for the girls. They also don’t even know how to play tennis because of the poverty.” Parent, rural
“The sports centre, it’s only open when there’s a tournament. For the small kids, the preschool children, they don’t have the facilities…The only things that are available are for the older kids and older people. So for the small ones, they are not accommodated for.” Parent, low-income urban
“Poverty contributes. Even our municipality does not care about us. If our municipality was interested they would have to build us places where children can be able to play at. And at those places I think they will be playing safe.” Parent, rural
“If anything, I’d say the lure of the screen would be the biggest hindrance to, possibly to physical activity. Possibly the fact that it’s more convenient to entertain one’s children and easier if you’re a child to just sit down and watch something and play with something, than it is to run around.” Parent, high-income urban

Time

(i) Time is not the most significant issue for parents.(i) Time was a problem for some participants. Time is a significant barrier for parents, who usually work.(i) Time is a significant barrier for parents. Extracurricular activities and domestic help mitigate this.

“I think the time for parents with kids is very limited in a lot of families.” – Parent, high-income urban

Teacher and/or parent capacity

(i) Many parents and teachers do not have the knowledge, training, or energy to properly care for children.(i) In some settings, parents and teachers do not have the knowledge, training, or energy to properly care for children.
(ii) However, in other settings, teachers are self-sufficient and capable, despite their lack of resources.
(i) Teachers are well-trained and capable career teachers. Parents are well educated.

“You say you might not have space, then we’d take them outside and find space. To run and jump and kick the ball. To me there’s always a way out, you need to improvise something if you don’t have that...You can’t let the child leave the ECD if the child doesn’t know how to climb a jungle gym or kick a ball. If you don’t have a ball you make one out of paper mache or things like that.” Teacher, low-income urban

Safety

(i) Crime is perceived as a real and significant danger to children.
(ii) Traffic was dangerous for unsupervised children.
(i) Crime is perceived as a real and significant danger to children.
(ii) Traffic was dangerous for unsupervised children.
(i) Crime is perceived as a danger, but not a significant one.
(ii) Traffic was dangerous for unsupervised children.
“It’s not safe for our children to go and play outside because there are people who are dangerous these days. They can call your children and promise to give some sweets meanwhile they want to kidnap them or rape them without (being) seen by anybody.” Teacher, rural
“Sometimes if you find that those children are busy playing soccer when they older ones come there they just kick them or chase them.” Teacher, rural
“Yes, I don’t even let me two boys, as soon as I fetch them here. They’re behind lock and key because I can’t let them run on the road at all.” Parent, low-income urban