BioMed Research International / 2017 / Article / Tab 1

Research Article

High Prevalence of Leptotrichia amnionii, Atopobium vaginae, Sneathia sanguinegens, and Factor 1 Microbes and Association of Spontaneous Abortion among Korean Women

Table 1

General characteristics of study subjects by abortion status: nonabortion, spontaneous abortion, and induced abortion.

TotalNonabortionSpontaneous abortionInduced abortion
() () () ()

Age (years), mean ± SD44.1 ± 11.339.1 ± 11.648.7 ± 8.344.8 ± 11.30.00110.0035
 <3531 (21.1)14 (38.9)1 (4.3)16 (18.2)0.01180.0332
 354445 (30.6)10 (27.8)6 (26.1)29 (32.9)
 455445 (30.6)9 (25.0)10 (43.5)26 (29.6)
 ≥5526 (17.7)3 (8.3)6 (26.1)17 (19.3)
Body-mass index (kg/m2), Mean ± SD22.4 ± 2.7822.6 ± 2.622.9 ± 3.122.2 ± 2.80.71130.4724
 <18.59 (6.1)2 (5.6)2 (8.7)5 (5.7)0.17090.1041
 18.522.980 (54.4)17 (47.2)9 (39.1)54 (61.3)
 23.024.927 (18.4)11 (30.6)3 (13.1)13 (14.8)
 ≥25.031 (21.1)6 (16.7)9 (39.1)16 (18.2)
Marital status
 Single17 (11.6)8 (22.2)2 (9.1)7 (8.0)0.19890.0736
 Married129 (88.4)28 (77.8)20 (90.9)81 (92.0)
Menopausal status
 Premenopausal96 (65.3)26 (72.2)15 (65.2)55 (62.5)0.56870.5869
 Postmenopausal51 (34.7)10 (27.8)8 (34.8)33 (37.5)
Number of children
 1 or less32 (24.1)9 (32.1)4 (17.4)19 (23.2)0.36880.6982
 273 (54.9)13 (46.4)15 (65.2)45 (54.9)
 3 or more28 (21.1)6 (21.5)4 (17.4)18 (21.9)
Education level
 Middle school or lower30 (20.6)5 (13.9)6 (26.1)19 (21.8)0.01510.0324
 High school72 (49.3)13 (36.1)14 (60.9)45 (51.7)
 University or higher44 (30.1)18 (50.0)3 (13.0)23 (26.5)
Family income (10,000 won/month)
 <19939 (28.9)7 (22.6)7 (33.3)25 (30.1)0.52640.6247
 20049962 (45.9)15 (48.4)7 (33.3)40 (48.2)
 ≥50034 (25.2)9 (29.0)7 (33.3)18 (21.7)
Oral contraceptive use
 Never123 (83.7)30 (83.3)19 (82.6)74 (84.1)0.94230.9835
 Ex/current24 (16.3)6 (16.7)4 (17.4)14 (15.9)
Smoking status
 Never132 (90.4)31 (88.6)22 (95.6)79 (89.8)0.34730.6355
 Ex/current14 (9.6)4 (11.4)1 (4.4)9 (10.2)
Alcohol-drinking status
 Never42 (28.8)11 (31.4)7 (30.4)24 (27.3)0.93620.8833
 Ex/current104 (71.2)24 (95.6)16 (69.6)64 (72.7)
Oncogenic HPV infection
 Negative41 (27.9)12 (33.3)2 (8.7)27 (30.7)0.030.0787
 Positive106 (72.1)24 (66.7)21 (91.3)61 (69.3)

Only available variables were used in this study, as not all 147 women completed the entire questionnaire. This table presents the number of subjects and their percentages (mean ± SD). The won-dollar exchange rate was approximately 1,280 won (per dollar) in 2002. Oncogenic HPV infection status was determined by measurement of 13 oncogenic HPV DNA types using Hybrid Capture 2. Abortion was subclassified as spontaneous abortion and induced abortion. Chi-square and -tests were used to assess the differences in the categorical and continuous variables, respectively, between nonabortion and spontaneous abortion; Chi-square test and ANOVA were used to assess the differences in the categorical and continuous variables, respectively, among nonabortion, spontaneous abortion, and induced abortion; .

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