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BioMed Research International
Volume 2017 (2017), Article ID 5732380, 6 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/5732380
Research Article

The Influence of Cigarette Smoke Exposure on the Copper Concentration in the Serum Depending on the Use of Menopausal Hormone Therapy

1Department of Public Health, Pomeranian Medical University in Szczecin, 48 Żołnierska Str., 71-210 Szczecin, Poland
2Department of Gynecology, Endocrinology and Gynecological Oncology, Pomeranian Medical University in Szczecin, 2 Siedlecka Str., 72-010 Police, Poland
3Department of Humanities in Medicine, Pomeranian Medical University in Szczecin, 11 Chłapowskiego Str., 70-103 Szczecin, Poland
4Department of Histology and Developmental Biology, Pomeranian Medical University in Szczecin, 48 Żołnierska Str., 71-210 Szczecin, Poland
5Department of Biochemistry and Medical Chemistry, Pomeranian Medical University in Szczecin, 72 Powstańców Wlkp. Str., 70-111 Szczecin, Poland
6Department of Laboratory Medicine, Pomeranian Medical University in Szczecin, 72 Powstańców Wlkp. Str., 70-111 Szczecin, Poland

Correspondence should be addressed to Sylwester Ciećwież

Received 24 February 2017; Revised 26 May 2017; Accepted 12 July 2017; Published 14 August 2017

Academic Editor: Xudong Huang

Copyright © 2017 Maria Jasińska-Starczewska et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

This study evaluated the effect of menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) on serum concentration of copper in postmenopausal women depending on passive or active exposure to tobacco smoke or lack thereof. The study included healthy postmenopausal women aged 42–69 years, who used () or did not use () MHT. Salivary cotinine and serum copper concentrations were determined in all the study subjects. Salivary cotinine exceeded 14 ng/ml in 14 women from the MHT group (18.5%) and in 16 controls (21.1%). Up to 41 (27%) study subjects had serum copper above the upper normal limit (1.17 mg/l). No correlation was found between salivary cotinine and serum copper in women with cotinine concentrations <14 ng/ml, and these two parameters correlated weakly in subjects with cotinine >14 ng/ml. Salivary concentration of cotinine increased with serum copper level in the MHT group, but not in the controls; smokers using MHT presented with significantly higher serum copper than nonsmokers. These findings imply that MHT does not affect serum concentration of copper in women who are not exposed to tobacco smoke. However, MHT seems to contribute to unfavorable increase in serum copper in passive and active smokers.