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BioMed Research International
Volume 2017, Article ID 6123408, 11 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/6123408
Research Article

Histopathological and Reproductive Evaluation in Male Rats Fed Jatropha curcas Seed Cake with or without Alkaline Hydrolysis and Subjected to Heat Treatment

1School of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Sciences, Federal University of Tocantins, 77804-970 Araguaína, TO, Brazil
2Biological Sciences, Federal University of Tocantins, 77824-838 Araguaína, TO, Brazil
3Embrapa Agroenergia, 70770-901 Brasília, DF, Brazil
4Department of Biological and Veterinary Sciences, Federal University of Santa Catarina, 895520-000 Curitibanos, SC, Brazil
5School of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Sciences, Federal University of São Paulo, 05508-270 São Paulo, SP, Brazil

Correspondence should be addressed to Laiane Teixeira Sousa Moura; moc.liamtoh@tevdemenaial

Received 5 January 2017; Revised 30 March 2017; Accepted 23 April 2017; Published 23 May 2017

Academic Editor: Huahua Yu

Copyright © 2017 Laiane Teixeira Sousa Moura et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Jatropha curcas cake, a by-product of biodiesel production, is rich in protein and has potential to be used in livestock feed; however, the presence of antinutritional factors and phorbol esters limits its use. Thus, this study investigated toxicological and reproductive effects in male Wistar rats after subchronic exposure to J. curcas cake subjected to detoxification procedures. Rats were divided into seven groups () and treated for 60 days. The control group received commercial feed, while experimental groups received a diet containing 5% J. curcas cake nonhydrolyzed or hydrolyzed with 5 M NaOH. The cakes were unwashed or washed with ethanol or water and were autoclaved at 121°C for 30 minutes. Alkaline hydrolysis combined with ethanol washing decreased the phorbol ester concentration in the cake by 98%. Histopathological findings included diffuse degeneration of the liver and edema around the pulmonary vessels in the nonhydrolyzed groups. In addition, nontreated females mated with males of nonhydrolyzed unwashed group showed a decreased number of live fetuses and an increased placental weight. There were no signs of toxicity in rats given hydrolyzed cakes washed and unwashed, indicating that alkaline hydrolysis associated with heat treatment is an efficient method for detoxification of the J. curcas cake.