Research Article

Asymmetric Dimethylarginine Induced Apoptosis and Dysfunction of Endothelial Progenitor Cells: Role of Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Pathway

Figure 6

Inhibition of ER stress pathway attenuated ADMA-induced apoptosis of EPCs. The TUNEL assay was applied to determine the apoptosis rate of EPCs. Apoptotic nuclei are visualized by green fluorescence. DAPI staining (blue) is used as a cell nucleus marker. (a and b) Representative images allowed the quantitative analysis of the effect of Salubrinal (a specific ER stress inhibitor) on ADMA-induced apoptosis of EPCs. EPCs were incubated alone or with 50 μM ADMA for 24 hours and with or without 25 μM Salubrinal after 1 hour before treatment. ADMA-induced EPCs apoptosis was attenuated by Salubrinal. (c and d) Representative western blots and quantification of cleaved caspase-3. The expression of cleaved caspase-3 induced by AMDA was also decreased by Salubrinal (n = 3 per group). Mean ± SEM. versus control. versus ADMA (50 μM).