(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
Figure 1: Designs of Ti-membranes. (a) Preformed Ti-membrane (PFTM) designed for the peri-implant buccal bone defect site. (b) Buccal view of deformed PFTM. (c) Lateral view of deformed PFTM (HW, horizontal width; BH, buccal height; BD, buccal depth). (d) 3D preformed Ti-membranes (3D-PFTMs). (e) Manually shaped Ti-membranes (MS-PFTMs).