Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
BioMed Research International
Volume 2017, Article ID 7120815, 7 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/7120815
Review Article

Opioid Addiction: Social Problems Associated and Implications of Both Current and Possible Future Treatments, including Polymeric Therapeutics for Giving Up the Habit of Opioid Consumption

1Department of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Technology, Complutense University of Madrid, 28040 Madrid, Spain
2University Institute of Industrial Pharmacy, Complutense University of Madrid, 28040 Madrid, Spain

Correspondence should be addressed to M. Cristina Benéitez; se.mcu@brcairam

Received 30 November 2016; Revised 20 February 2017; Accepted 23 April 2017; Published 18 May 2017

Academic Editor: Witold Musial

Copyright © 2017 M. Cristina Benéitez and M. Esther Gil-Alegre. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. Ministry of Health of Spain, “Glossary of alcohol and drugs. Publications Center—Ministry of Health, 1994,” http://www.who.int/substance_abuse/terminology/lexicon_alcohol_drugs_spanish.pdf.
  2. A. Stolbach and R. S. Hoffman, Opioid Intoxication in Adults, UpToDate 2012, 1992.
  3. E. L. A. van Dorp, A. Yassen, and A. Dahan, “Naloxone treatment in opioid addiction: the risks and benefits,” Expert Opinion on Drug Safety, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 125–132, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. J. Mounteney, P. Griffiths, R. Sedefov, A. Noor, J. Vicente, and R. Simon, “The drug situation in Europe: an overview of data available on illicit drugs and new psychoactive substances from European monitoring in 2015,” Addiction, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. Ministry of Interior of Spain, “National strategy of drugs, 2009-2016,” http://www.pnsd.msssi.gob.es/pnsd/estrategiaNacional/docs/EstrategiaPNSD2009-2016.pdf.
  6. U.S. Food and Drug Administration, “Risk evaluation and mitigation strategy, 2009,” http://www.fda.gov/Drugs/DrugSafety/PostmarketDrugSafetyInformationforPatientsandProviders/ucm111350.htm.
  7. D. P. Wermeling, “Review of naloxone safety for opioid overdose: practical considerations for new technology and expanded public access,” Therapeutic Advances in Drug Safety, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 20–31, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  8. R. Lozano, M. Naghavi, K. Foreman, and etal., “Global and regional mortality from 235 causes of death for 20 age groups in 1990 and 2010: a systematic analysis for the global burden of disease study 2010,” Lancet, vol. 280, article 9859, pp. 2095–2128, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  9. Tech times, “Obama announces us will tackle heroin, prescription drug abuse, 2015,” http://www.techtimes.com/articles/98500/20151023/obama-announces-us-will-tackle-heroin-prescription-drug-abuse.htm. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  10. Office Transfer of research results-Complutense University of Madrid, “Heroin: be aware when other countries are been attacked, 2016,” https://www.ucm.es/data/cont/media/www/pag-57864/2016/20160204_opinion_premio3.pdf.
  11. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Food and Drug Administration Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, “Guidance for industry assessment of abuse potential of drugs,” http://www.fda.gov/downloads/drugs/guidancecomplianceregulatoryinformation/guidances/ucm198650.pdf.
  12. Y. Cha and C. G. Pitt, “A one-week subdermal delivery system for l-methadone based on biodegradable microcapsules,” Journal of Controlled Release, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 69–78, 1988. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. C. M. Negrín, A. Delgado, M. Llabrés, and C. Évora, “Methadone implants for methadone maintenance treatment. in vitro and in vivo animal studies,” Journal of Controlled Release, vol. 95, no. 3, pp. 413–421, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. B.-F. X. Sobel, S. C. Sigmon, S. L. Walsh et al., “Open-label trial of an injection depot formulation of buprenorphine in opioid detoxification,” Drug and Alcohol Dependence, vol. 73, no. 1, pp. 11–22, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. J. White, J. Bell, J. B. Saunders et al., “Open-label dose-finding trial of buprenorphine implants (Probuphine)® for treatment of heroin dependence,” Drug and Alcohol Dependence, vol. 103, no. 1-2, pp. 37–43, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. S. Koocheki, S. S. Madaeni, and P. Niroomandi, “Development of an enhanced formulation for delivering sustained release of buprenorphine hydrochloride,” Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 255–262, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. W. Yin, E. O. Akala, and R. E. Taylor, “Design of naltrexone-loaded hydrolyzable crosslinked nanoparticles,” International Journal of Pharmaceutics, vol. 244, no. 1-2, pp. 9–19, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. R. Dinarvand, S. H. Moghadam, L. Mohammadyari-Fard, and F. Atyabi, “Preparation of biodegradable microspheres and matrix devices containing naltrexone,” AAPS PharmSciTech, vol. 4, pp. 45–54, 2003. View at Google Scholar
  19. G. K. Hulse, D. E. Arnold-Reed, G. O'Neil, C.-T. Chan, R. Hansson, and P. O'Neil, “Blood naltrexone and 6-β-naltrexol levels following naltrexone implant: comparing two naltrexone implants,” Addiction Biology, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 59–65, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. U.S. Food & Drug Administration, “Medication guide of vivitrol, 2006,” http://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/label/2010/021897s005s010MedGuide.pdf.
  21. Y. Liu, V. B. Sunderland, and A. G. O'Neil, “In vitro and in vivo release of naltrexone from biodegradable depot systems,” Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy, vol. 32, no. 1, pp. 85–94, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. R. Salehi, S. Davaran, M. R. Rashidi, and A. A. Entezami, “Thermosensitive nanoparticles prepared from poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-acrylamide-vinilpyrrolidone) and its blend with poly(lactide-co-glycolide) for efficient drug delivery system,” Journal of Applied Polymer Science, vol. 111, no. 4, pp. 1905–1910, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. E. O. Akala, P. Wiriyacoonkasem, and G. Pan, “Studies on in vitro availability, degradation, and thermal properties of naltrexone-loaded biodegradable microspheres,” Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy, vol. 37, no. 6, pp. 673–684, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. J. Tiihonen, E. Krupitsky, E. Verbitskaya, and etal., “Naltrexone implant for the treatment of polydrug dependence: a randomized controlled trial,” American Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 169, no. 5, pp. 531–536, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. K. P. Pagar and P. R. Vavia, “Naltrexone-loaded poly[La-(Glc-Leu)] polymeric microspheres for the treatment of alcohol dependence: in vitro characterization and in vivo biocompatibility assessment,” Pharmaceutical Development and Technology, vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 385–394, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. E. A. Petrova, S. A. Kedik, K. V. Alekseev et al., “Influence of microencapsulation process parameters on naltrexone prolonged-release dosage form,” Pharmaceutical Chemistry Journal, vol. 48, no. 1, pp. 65–68, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. National Institute on Drug Abuse, “Principles of drug addiction treatment: a research-based guide, 2012,” http://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/principles-drug-addiction-treatment-research-based-guide-third-edition/resources.
  28. M. Gossop, L. Green, G. Phillips, and B. Bradley, “What happens to opiate addicts immediately after treatment: a prospective follow up study,” British Medical Journal, vol. 294, no. 6584, pp. 1377–1380, 1987. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. FDA News Release, “FDA approves first buprenorphine implant for treatment of opioid dependence,” http://www.fda.gov/NewsEvents/Newsroom/PressAnnouncements/ucm503719.htm.
  30. “European public assessment report (EPAR) for Suboxone, 2009,” http://www.ema.europa.eu/ema/index.jsp?curl=pages/medicines/human/medicines/000697/human_med_001067.jsp&mid=WC0b01ac058001d124.
  31. R. K. Lanier, A. Umbricht, J. A. Harrison, E. S. Nuwayser, and G. E. Bigelow, “Evaluation of a transdermal buprenorphine formulation in opioid detoxification,” Addiction, vol. 102, no. 10, pp. 1648–1656, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. National University of Distance Education, “FAQs - Naloxone and naltrexone. Psychopharmacology, 2010,” http://www2.uned.es/psicofarmacologia/stahl4Ed/contenidos/FAQs/faqs/31.html.
  33. Spanish Health Authority, “Summaries of product characteristics of naltrexona.HCl, 2013,” http://www.aemps.gob.es/cima/fichasTecnicas.do?metodo=buscar.
  34. Spanish Health Authority, “Summaries of product characteristics of Revia, 2012,” http://www.aemps.gob.es/cima/fichasTecnicas.do?metodo=buscar.
  35. Spanish Health Authority, “Summaries of product characteristics of naloxona.HCl, 2014,” http://www.aemps.gob.es/cima/fichasTecnicas.do?metodo=buscar.
  36. G. K. Hulse, N. Morris, D. Arnold-Reed, and R. J. Tait, “Improving Clinical Outcomes in Treating Heroin Dependence,” Archives of General Psychiatry, vol. 66, no. 10, pp. 1108–1115, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  37. A.-L. Kjøniksen, M. T. Calejo, K. Zhu et al., “Sustained release of naltrexone from Poly(N-Isopropylacrylamide) microgels,” Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, vol. 103, no. 1, pp. 227–234, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. A. Ferrari, M. Bertolotti, A. Dell'Utri, U. Avico, and E. Sternieri, “Serum time course of naltrexone and 6β-naltrexol levels during long term treatment in drug addicts,” Drug and Alcohol Dependence, vol. 52, no. 3, pp. 211–220, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. L. Olsen, A. S. Christophersen, G. Frogopsahl, H. Waal, and J. Mørland, “Plasma concentrations during naltrexone implant treatment of opiate-dependent patients,” British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, vol. 58, no. 2, pp. 219–222, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. A. Acevedo, D. Garnick, G. Ritter, L. Lundgren, and C. Horgan, “Admissions to detoxification after treatment: does engagement make a difference?” Substance Abuse, vol. 37, no. 2, pp. 364–371, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. K. Vivek, L. H. Reddy, and R. S. R. Murthy, “Comparative study of some biodegradable polymers on the entrapment efficiency and release behavior of etoposide from microspheres,” Pharmaceutical Development and Technology, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 79–88, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. S. Mao, Y. Shi, L. Li, J. Xu, A. Schaper, and T. Kissel, “Effects of process and formulation parameters on characteristics and internal morphology of poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide) microspheres formed by the solvent evaporation method,” European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics, vol. 68, no. 2, pp. 214–223, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. Y. Yeo, N. Baek, and K. Park, “Microencapsulation methods for delivery of protein drugs,” Biotechnology and Bioprocess Engineering, vol. 6, no. 4, pp. 213–230, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. R. A. Jain, “The manufacturing techniques of various drug loaded biodegradable poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) devices,” Biomaterials, vol. 21, no. 23, pp. 2475–2490, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. Y. Ogawa, M. Yamamoto, H. Okada, T. Yashiki, and T. Shimamoto, “A new technique to efficiently entrap leuprolide acetate into microcapsules of polylactic acid or copoly(lactic/glycolic) acid,” Chemical and Pharmaceutical Bulletin, vol. 36, no. 3, pp. 1095–1103, 1988. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  46. F. T. Meng, G. H. Ma, W. Qiu, and Z. G. Su, “W/O/W double emulsion technique using ethyl acetate as organic solvent: effects of its diffusion rate on the characteristics of microparticles,” Journal of Controlled Release, vol. 91, no. 3, pp. 407–416, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. L. Chen, R. N. Apte, and S. Cohen, “Characterization of PLGA microspheres for the controlled delivery of IL-1α for tumor immunotherapy,” Journal of Controlled Release, vol. 43, no. 2-3, pp. 261–272, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. J. M. Anderson and M. S. Shive, “Biodegradation and biocompatibility of PLA and PLGA microspheres,” Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews, vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 5–24, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. E. Fournier, C. Passirani, C. N. Montero-Menei, and J. P. Benoit, “Biocompatibility of implantable synthetic polymeric drug carriers: focus on brain biocompatibility,” Biomaterials, vol. 24, no. 19, pp. 3311–3331, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. Y. Zhu, G. Zhang, H. Yang, and X. Hong, “Influence of surfactants on the parameters of polylactide nanocapsules containing insulin,” Journal of Surfactants and Detergents, vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 353–358, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. N. Faisant, J. Akiki, F. Siepmann, J. P. Benoit, and J. Siepmann, “Effects of the type of release medium on drug release from PLGA-based microparticles: experiment and theory,” International Journal of Pharmaceutics, vol. 314, no. 2, pp. 189–197, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. F. Delie and M. J. Blanco-Príeto, “Polymeric particulates to improve oral bioavailability of peptide drugs,” Molecules, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 65–80, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. E. Allémann, J.-C. Leroux, and R. Gurny, “Polymeric nano- and microparticles for the oral delivery of peptides and peptidomimetics,” Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews, vol. 34, no. 2-3, pp. 171–189, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. V. M. K. Ndesendo, V. Pillay, Y. E. Choonara et al., “Optimization of a polymer composite employing molecular mechanic simulations and artificial neural networks for a novel intravaginal bioadhesive drug delivery device,” Pharmaceutical Development and Technology, vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 407–420, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. F. Qian, J. Wang, R. Hartley et al., “Solution behavior of PVP-VA and HPMC-AS-based amorphous solid dispersions and their bioavailability implications.,” Pharmaceutical Research, vol. 29, no. 10, pp. 2765–2776, 2012. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. M. Bragagni, C. Beneitez, C. Martín, D. H. P. De La Ossa, P. A. Mura, and M. E. Gil-Alegre, “Selection of PLA polymers for the development of injectable prilocaine controlled release microparticles: usefulness of thermal analysis,” International Journal of Pharmaceutics, vol. 441, no. 1-2, pp. 468–475, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. J. L. Dunbar, R. Z. Turncliff, Q. Dong, B. L. Silverman, E. W. Ehrich, and K. C. Lasseter, “Single- and multiple-dose pharmacokinetics of long-acting injectable naltrexone,” Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, vol. 30, no. 3, pp. 480–490, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. M. S. Todtenkopf, K. S. O'Neill, K. Kriksciukaite et al., “Route of administration affects the ability of naltrexone to reduce amphetamine-potentiated brain stimulation reward in rats,” Addiction Biology, vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 408–418, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. N. Kunøe, P. Lobmaier, H. Ngo, and G. Hulse, “Injectable and implantable sustained release naltrexone in the treatment of opioid addiction,” British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, vol. 77, no. 2, pp. 264–271, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. D. L. Wise, “Biopolymeric Controlled Release Systems,” in Informa UK Ltd, pp. 1–115, Boca Raton, Fla, USA, 1984. View at Google Scholar
  61. N. Durán, A. F. De Oliveira, and M. M. M. De Azevedo, “In vitro studies on the release of isoniazid incorporated in poly(ε-caprolactone),” Journal of Chemotherapy, vol. 18, no. 5, pp. 473–479, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. C. G. Pitt, “Biodegradable Polymers as Drug Delivery Systems,” pp. 71–120, Marcel Dekker, New York, NY, USA, 1990. View at Google Scholar
  63. X. Xie, W. Lin, C. Xing et al., “In vitro and in vivo evaluations of PLGA microspheres containing nalmefene,” PLoS ONE, vol. 10, no. 5, Article ID e0125953, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. X.-G. Wu, G. Li, and Y.-L. Gao, “Optimization of the preparation of nalmefene-loaded sustained-release microspheres using central composite design,” Chemical and Pharmaceutical Bulletin, vol. 54, no. 7, pp. 977–981, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. T. S. Harrison, G. L. Plosker, and S. J. Keam, “Extended-release intramuscular naltrexone,” Drugs, vol. 66, no. 13, pp. 1741–1751, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. C. Goicoechea, R. Girón, E. Sánchez, M. E. Gil, A. I. Torres, and M. I. Martín, “In vitro activity of poly-E-caprolactone microspheres containing naloxone,” Fundamental and Clinical Pharmacology, pp. 23–126, 2004. View at Google Scholar
  67. J. Foster, C. Brewer, and T. Steele, “Naltrexone implants can completely prevent early (1-month) relapse after opiate detoxification: a pilot study of two cohorts totalling 101 patients with a note on naltrexone blood levels,” Addiction Biology, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 211–217, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus