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BioMed Research International
Volume 2017 (2017), Article ID 7432310, 12 pages
Review Article

A Review of Modern Control Strategies for Clinical Evaluation of Propofol Anesthesia Administration Employing Hypnosis Level Regulation

1Department of Electrical Engineering, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad 45550, Pakistan
2Department of Electrical Engineering, Iqra National University, Peshawar 25000, Pakistan

Correspondence should be addressed to Muhammad Fasih Uddin Butt

Received 31 October 2016; Accepted 7 March 2017; Published 30 March 2017

Academic Editor: Viness Pillay

Copyright © 2017 Muhammad Ilyas et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Regulating the depth of hypnosis during surgery is one of the major objectives of an anesthesia infusion system. Continuous administration of Propofol infusion during surgical procedures is essential but it unduly increases the load of an anesthetist working in a multitasking scenario in the operation theatre. Manual and target controlled infusion systems are not appropriate to handle instabilities like blood pressure and heart rate changes arising due to interpatient and intrapatient variability. Patient safety, large interindividual variability, and less postoperative effects are the main factors motivating automation in anesthesia administration. The idea of automated system for Propofol infusion excites control engineers to come up with more sophisticated systems that can handle optimum delivery of anesthetic drugs during surgery and avoid postoperative effects. A linear control technique is applied initially using three compartmental pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic models. Later on, sliding mode control and model predicative control achieve considerable results with nonlinear sigmoid model. Chattering and uncertainties are further improved by employing adaptive fuzzy control and control. The proposed sliding mode control scheme can easily handle the nonlinearities and achieve an optimum hypnosis level as compared to linear control schemes, hence preventing mishaps such as underdosing and overdosing of anesthesia.