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BioMed Research International
Volume 2017, Article ID 7452604, 7 pages
Research Article

Risk Factors for the Mortality of Pneumocystis jirovecii Pneumonia in Non-HIV Patients Who Required Mechanical Ventilation: A Retrospective Case Series Study

Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, Tokyo Women’s Medical University, Tokyo 162-8666, Japan

Correspondence should be addressed to Toru Kotani; moc.liamg@inatokurot

Received 13 February 2017; Revised 9 April 2017; Accepted 20 April 2017; Published 8 May 2017

Academic Editor: Klaus P. Hunfeld

Copyright © 2017 Toru Kotani et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Background. The risk factors for the mortality rate of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP) who required mechanical ventilation (MV) remained unknown. Methods. A retrospective chart review was performed of all PCP patients admitted to our intensive care unit and treated for acute hypoxemic respiratory failure to assess the risk factors for the high mortality. Results. Twenty patients without human immunodeficiency virus infection required mechanical ventilation; 19 received noninvasive ventilation; and 11 were intubated. PEEP was incrementally increased and titrated to maintain FIO2 as low as possible. No mandatory ventilation was used. Sixteen patients (80%) survived. Pneumothorax developed in one patient with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Median PEEP level in the first 5 days was 10.0 cmH2O and not associated with death. Multivariate analysis showed the association of incidence of interstitial lung disease and increase in serum KL-6 with 90-day mortality. Conclusions. We found MV strategies to prevent pneumothorax including liberal use of noninvasive ventilation, and PEEP titration and disuse of mandatory ventilation may improve mortality in this setting. Underlying disease of interstitial lung disease was a risk factor and KL-6 may be a useful predictor associated with mortality in patients with RA. These findings will need to be validated in larger studies.