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BioMed Research International
Volume 2017, Article ID 7481597, 14 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/7481597
Research Article

Metabolic Disorders in HIV-Infected Adolescents Receiving Protease Inhibitors

1Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand
2Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand
3Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand

Correspondence should be addressed to Kulkanya Chokephaibulkit; ht.ca.lodiham@ohc.aynakluk

Received 31 October 2016; Accepted 29 December 2016; Published 15 February 2017

Academic Editor: Marcelo A. Soares

Copyright © 2017 Jeerunda Santiprabhob et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Protease inhibitor (PI) may cause abnormal glucose metabolism, abnormal lipid metabolism, and metabolic syndrome in HIV-infected adults but less well studied in Asian adolescents. This cross-sectional study evaluated anthropometric factors, oral glucose tolerance test, and lipid profiles of perinatally HIV-infected Thai adolescents who had received PI-based antiretroviral therapy for at least 6 months. Eighty adolescents were enrolled [median (IQR) age 16.7 (14.6–18.0) years, 42 males]. Metabolic syndrome, prediabetes, and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) were found in 8 (10%), 17 (22.1%), and 3 (3.8%) adolescents, respectively. Dyslipidemia was found in 56 (70%) adolescents, with hypertriglyceridemia being the most common type. In multivariate analysis, presence of lipohypertrophy (OR: 25.7, 95% CI: 3.2–202.8; ) and longer duration of PI use (OR: 1.04, 95% CI: 1.00–1.08; ) were associated with metabolic syndrome. Obesity (OR: 7.71, 95% CI: 1.36–43.7; ), presence of lipohypertrophy (OR: 62.9, 95% CI: 4.97–795.6; ), and exposure to stavudine for ≥6 months (OR: 8.18, 95% CI: 1.37–48.7; ) were associated with prediabetes/T2DM, while exposure to tenofovir for ≥6 months reduced the risk (OR: 0.17, 95% CI: 0.04–0.78; ). Metabolic disorders were commonly found in adolescents receiving PI. Careful monitoring and early intervention to modify cardiovascular risk should be systematically implemented in this population particularly those with exposure to stavudine.