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BioMed Research International
Volume 2017 (2017), Article ID 7584621, 10 pages
Research Article

Differential S1P Receptor Profiles on M1- and M2-Polarized Macrophages Affect Macrophage Cytokine Production and Migration

1Department of General Surgery, Visceral, Thoracic and Vascular Surgery, Universitätsmedizin Greifswald, Ferdinand-Sauerbruch-Str., 17475 Greifswald, Germany
2Department of Vascular Surgery, Krankenhaus Ludmillenstift, Ludmillenstraße 4-6, 49716 Meppen, Germany

Correspondence should be addressed to Tobias Schulze

Received 14 November 2016; Revised 16 January 2017; Accepted 2 February 2017; Published 6 March 2017

Academic Editor: Anton M. Jetten

Copyright © 2017 Jan Müller et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Introduction. Macrophages are key players in complex biological processes. In response to environmental signals, macrophages undergo polarization towards a proinflammatory (M1) or anti-inflammatory (M2) phenotype. Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) is a bioactive lysophospholipid that acts via 5 G-protein coupled receptors () in order to influence a broad spectrum of biological processes. This study assesses S1P receptor expression on macrophages before and after M1 and M2 polarization and performs a comparative analysis of S1P signalling in the two activational states of macrophages. Methods. Bone marrow derived macrophages (BMDM) from C57 BL/6 mice were cultured under either M1- or M2-polarizing conditions. S1P-receptor expression was determined by quantitative RT-PCR. Influence of S1P on macrophage activation, migration, phagocytosis, and cytokine secretion was assessed in vitro. Results. All 5 S1P receptor subclasses were expressed in macrophages. Culture under both M1- and M2-polarizing conditions led to significant downregulation of S1P1. In contrast, M1-polarized macrophages significantly downregulated S1P4. The expression of the remaining three S1P receptors did not change. S1P increased expression of iNOS under M2-polarizing conditions. Furthermore, S1P induced chemotaxis in M1 macrophages and changed cytokine production in M2 macrophages. Phagocytosis was not affected by S1P-signalling. Discussion. The expression of different specific S1P receptor profiles may provide a possibility to selectively influence M1- or M2-polarized macrophages.