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BioMed Research International
Volume 2017, Article ID 7908183, 18 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/7908183
Review Article

Drinking Water Quality Status and Contamination in Pakistan

1Department of Agronomy, College of Agriculture and Biotechnology, Zhejiang University, Zijingang Campus, Hangzhou 310058, China
2Department of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, Kohat University of Science and Technology, Kohat 26000, Pakistan
3Institute of Soil & Environmental Sciences, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Faisalabad 38040, Pakistan
4Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Government College University, Allama Iqbal Road, Faisalabad 38000, Pakistan
5Institute of Home and Food Sciences, Government College University, Faisalabad, Pakistan
6Department of Applied Chemistry, Government College University, Faisalabad, Pakistan
7Department of Botany, Kohat University of Science and Technology, Kohat 26000, Pakistan

Correspondence should be addressed to Shafaqat Ali; moc.oohay@lligilataqafahs and Shui Jin Zhu; nc.ude.ujz@uhzjhs

Received 4 February 2017; Accepted 14 May 2017; Published 14 August 2017

Academic Editor: Masood Ahmad

Copyright © 2017 M. K. Daud et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Due to alarming increase in population and rapid industrialization, drinking water quality is being deteriorated day by day in Pakistan. This review sums up the outcomes of various research studies conducted for drinking water quality status of different areas of Pakistan by taking into account the physicochemical properties of drinking water as well as the presence of various pathogenic microorganisms. About 20% of the whole population of Pakistan has access to safe drinking water. The remaining 80% of population is forced to use unsafe drinking water due to the scarcity of safe and healthy drinking water sources. The primary source of contamination is sewerage (fecal) which is extensively discharged into drinking water system supplies. Secondary source of pollution is the disposal of toxic chemicals from industrial effluents, pesticides, and fertilizers from agriculture sources into the water bodies. Anthropogenic activities cause waterborne diseases that constitute about 80% of all diseases and are responsible for 33% of deaths. This review highlights the drinking water quality, contamination sources, sanitation situation, and effects of unsafe drinking water on humans. There is immediate need to take protective measures and treatment technologies to overcome unhygienic condition of drinking water supplies in different areas of Pakistan.