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BioMed Research International
Volume 2017, Article ID 8017541, 9 pages
Research Article

Longitudinal Patterns of Stability and Change in Tenacious Goal Pursuit and Flexible Goal Adjustment among Older People over a 9-Year Period

1Laboratory of Vulnerabilities and Innovation in Sport (EA 7428), Interdisciplinary Confederation of Research in Sport (FED 4272), University of Claude Bernard Lyon 1, University of Lyon, Lyon, France
2Laboratory of Psychology of the Various Stages of Life (EA 2114), Université François Rabelais, Tours, France
3Laboratory of Psychology, Health and Quality of Life (EA 4139), Université de Bordeaux, Bordeaux, France

Correspondence should be addressed to Guillaume Martinent; rf.1noyl-vinu@tnenitram.emualliug

Received 19 February 2017; Accepted 8 May 2017; Published 31 May 2017

Academic Editor: Hui X. Wang

Copyright © 2017 Guillaume Martinent et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Using the dual-process model of assimilative-tenacity (TGP) and accommodative-flexibility (FGA), the study aims to identify trajectories of TGP and FGA over five time points within a 9-year period, explore the relationships between the trajectories of TGP and FGA, and explore if participants from distinct TGP and FGA trajectories differed in indicators of well-being and depression. Latent class growth analysis was used in a five-wave longitudinal design among an older population of 747 participants over 65 years. Results highlight (1) emergence of four trajectories for flexibility (low and increasing, moderate and increasing, moderately high and stable, and high and stable trajectories) and three trajectories for tenacity (low and stable, moderate and stable, and high and decreasing trajectories), (2) that older people belonging to particular trajectories of FGA are not more likely to belong to particular trajectories of TGP, and (3) that participants from the high and decreasing TGP and high or moderately high and stable FGA trajectories were characterized by high score of perceived health, satisfaction with life, and self-esteem and low score of depression moods. These results highlight that the heterogeneity in longitudinal TGP and FGA scores throughout the life span needs to be accounted for in future research.