Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
BioMed Research International
Volume 2017, Article ID 8184160, 12 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/8184160
Research Article

Evaluation of the Bacterial Diversity in the Human Tongue Coating Based on Genus-Specific Primers for 16S rRNA Sequencing

1State Key Laboratory of Bioelectronics, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096, China
2Key Laboratory of Child Development and Learning Science, Ministry of Education of China, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096, China

Correspondence should be addressed to Zuhong Lu; nc.ude.ues@ulhz

Received 25 February 2017; Revised 20 June 2017; Accepted 20 July 2017; Published 20 August 2017

Academic Editor: Koichiro Wada

Copyright © 2017 Beili Sun et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. A. F. Andersson, M. Lindberg, H. Jakobsson, F. Bäckhed, P. Nyrén, and L. Engstrand, “Comparative analysis of human gut microbiota by barcoded pyrosequencing,” PLoS ONE, vol. 3, no. 7, article e2836, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. E. M. Bik, P. B. Eckburg, S. R. Gill et al., “Molecular analysis of the bacterial microbiota in the human stomach,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 103, no. 3, pp. 732–737, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. W. Deng, D. Xi, H. Mao, and M. Wanapat, “The use of molecular techniques based on ribosomal RNA and DNA for rumen microbial ecosystem studies: a review,” Molecular Biology Reports, vol. 35, no. 2, pp. 265–274, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. N. Segata, S. Kinder Haake, P. Mannon et al., “Composition of the adult digestive tract bacterial microbiome based on seven mouth surfaces, tonsils, throat and stool samples,” Genome Biology, vol. 13, no. 6, pp. 1–18, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. M. H. Tschöp, P. Hugenholtz, and C. L. Karp, “Getting to the core of the gut microbiome,” Nature Biotechnology, vol. 27, no. 4, pp. 344–346, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. P. J. Turnbaugh, M. Hamady, T. Yatsunenko et al., “A core gut microbiome in obese and lean twins,” Nature, vol. 457, no. 7228, pp. 480–484, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. T. H. M. P. Consortium, “Structure, function and diversity of the healthy human microbiome,” Nature, vol. 486, no. 7402, pp. 207–214, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  8. P. J. Turnbaugh, R. E. Ley, M. Hamady, C. M. Fraserliggett, R. Knight, and J. I. Gordon, “The human microbiome project,” Indian Journal of Microbiology, vol. 52, no. 3, pp. 804–810, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  9. J. A. Aas, B. J. Paster, L. N. Stokes, I. Olsen, and F. E. Dewhirst, “Defining the normal bacterial flora of the oral cavity,” Journal of Clinical Microbiology, vol. 43, no. 11, pp. 5721–5732, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. E. M. Bik, C. D. Long, G. C. Armitage et al., “Bacterial diversity in the oral cavity of 10 healthy individuals,” ISME Journal, vol. 4, no. 8, pp. 962–974, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. A. Bordas, R. McNab, A. M. Staples, J. Bowman, J. Kanapka, and M. P. Bosma, “Impact of different tongue cleaning methods on the bacterial load of the tongue dorsum,” Archives of Oral Biology, vol. 53, pp. S13–S18, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  12. W. Crielaard, E. Zaura, A. A. Schuller, S. M. Huse, R. C. Montijn, and B. J. F. Keijser, “Exploring the oral microbiota of children at various developmental stages of their dentition in the relation to their oral health,” BMC Medical Genomics, vol. 4, article 22, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. V. Lazarevic, K. Whiteson, D. Hernandez, P. Francois, and J. Schrenzel, “Study of inter- and intra-individual variations in the salivary microbiota,” BMC Genomics, vol. 11, no. 523, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  14. V. Lazarevic, K. Whiteson, S. Huse et al., “Metagenomic study of the oral microbiota by Illumina high-throughput sequencing,” Journal of Microbiological Methods, vol. 79, no. 3, pp. 266–271, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. S. Pushalkar, S. P. Mane, X. Ji et al., “Microbial diversity in saliva of oral squamous cell carcinoma,” FEMS Immunology and Medical Microbiology, vol. 61, no. 3, pp. 269–277, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. R. Watanabe, K. Hojo, S. Nagaoka, K. Kimura, T. Ohshima, and N. Maeda, “Antibacterial activity of sodium citrate against oral bacteria isolated from human tongue dorsum,” Journal of Oral Biosciences, vol. 53, no. 1, pp. 87–92, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. E. Zaura, B. J. Keijser, S. M. Huse, and W. Crielaard, “Defining the healthy core microbiome of oral microbial communities,” BMC Microbiology, vol. 9, no. 259, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  18. M. T. Abreu and R. M. Peek Jr., “Gastrointestinal malignancy and the microbiome,” Gastroenterology, vol. 146, no. 6, pp. 1534–1546, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  19. F. E. Dewhirst, T. Chen, J. Izard et al., “The human oral microbiome,” Journal of Bacteriology, vol. 192, no. 19, pp. 5002–5017, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. H. E. Jakobsson, C. Jernberg, A. F. Andersson, M. Sjolund-Karlsson, J. K. Jansson, and L. Engstrand, “Short-term antibiotic treatment has differing long-term impacts on the human throat and gut microbiome,” PLoS One, vol. 5, no. 3, article e9836, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  21. C. E. Kazor, P. M. Mitchell, A. M. Lee et al., “Diversity of bacterial populations on the tongue dorsa of patients with halitosis and healthy patients,” Journal of Clinical Microbiology, vol. 41, no. 2, pp. 558–563, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. R. Li, T. Ma, G. Jin, X. Liang, and S. Li, “Imbalanced network biomarkers for traditional Chinese medicine Syndrome in gastritis patients,” Scientific Reports, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 1543–1543, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  23. B. J. Marsland and E. S. Gollwitzer, “Host-microorganism interactions in lung diseases,” Nature Reviews Immunology, vol. 14, no. 12, pp. 827–835, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  24. P. Xu and J. Gunsolley, “Application of metagenomics in understanding oral health and disease,” Virulence, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 424–432, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  25. J. L. Tang, B. Y. Liu, and K. W. Ma, “Traditional Chinese medicine,” Lancet, vol. 372, no. 9654, pp. 1938–1940, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  26. S. Han, Y. Chen, J. Hu, and Z. Ji, “Tongue images and tongue coating microbiome in patients with colorectal cancer,” Microbial Pathogenesis, vol. 77, pp. 1–6, 2014. View at Google Scholar
  27. B. Jiang, X. Liang, Y. Chen et al., “Integrating next-generation sequencing and traditional tongue diagnosis to determine tongue coating microbiome,” Scientific Reports, vol. 2, article 936, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. Z. Sun, J. Zhao, P. Qian et al., “Metabolic markers and microecological characteristics of tongue coating in patients with chronic gastritis,” BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 13, article 227, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  29. Y. Zhao, X. Gou, J. Dai et al., “Differences in metabolites of different tongue coatings in patients with chronic hepatitis B,” Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 2013, Article ID 204908, 12 pages, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  30. D. R. Bentley, S. Balasubramanian, H. P. Swerdlow et al., “Accurate whole human genome sequencing using reversible terminator chemistry,” Nature, vol. 7218, pp. 53–59, 456. View at Google Scholar
  31. T. D. Harris, P. R. Buzby, H. Babcock et al., “Single-molecule DNA sequencing of a viral genome,” Science, vol. 320, no. 5872, pp. 106–109, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. M. E. Hudson, “Sequencing breakthroughs for genomic ecology and evolutionary biology,” Molecular Ecology Resources, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 3–17, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. M. Margulies, M. Egholm, W. E. Altman, S. Attiya, J. S. Bader, and L. A. Bemben, “Genome sequencing in microfabricated high-density picolitre reactors,” Nature, vol. 437, no. 7057, pp. 376–380, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  34. A. Valouev, J. Ichikawa, T. Tonthat et al., “A high-resolution, nucleosome position map of C. elegans reveals a lack of universal sequence-dictated positioning,” Genome Research, vol. 18, no. 7, pp. 1051–1063, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. M. J. Claesson, S. Cusack, O. O'Sullivan et al., “Composition, variability, and temporal stability of the intestinal microbiota of the elderly,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 108, no. 1, pp. 4586–4591, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. T. Ding and P. D. Schloss, “Dynamics and associations of microbial community types across the human body,” Nature, vol. 509, no. 7500, pp. 357–360, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  37. J. A. Huber, D. B. Mark Welch, H. G. Morrison et al., “Microbial population structures in the deep marine biosphere,” Science, vol. 318, no. 5847, pp. 97–100, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. C. Huttenhower, D. Gevers, R. Knight et al., “Structure, function and diversity of the healthy human microbiome,” Nature, vol. 486, no. 7402, pp. 207–214, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  39. J. J. Qin, Y. R. Li, Z. M. Cai et al., “A metagenome-wide association study of gut microbiota in type 2 diabetes,” Nature, vol. 490, no. 7418, pp. 55–60, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. J. Ye, X. Cai, and P. Cao, “Problems and prospects of current studies on the microecology of tongue coating,” Chinese Medicine, vol. 9, no. 1, article 9, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar