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BioMed Research International
Volume 2017, Article ID 8201672, 17 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/8201672
Review Article

New Frontiers in Genetics, Gut Microbiota, and Immunity: A Rosetta Stone for the Pathogenesis of Inflammatory Bowel Disease

1Department of Gastroenterology, Xinhua Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200092, China
2Department of General Surgery, Huashan Hospital of Fudan University, Shanghai 200040, China
3Shanghai Institute for Pediatric Research, Shanghai 200092, China
4Shanghai Key Laboratory of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition, Shanghai 200092, China

Correspondence should be addressed to Yingwei Chen; nc.moc.demauhnix@iewgniynehc

Received 5 April 2017; Revised 3 June 2017; Accepted 3 July 2017; Published 2 August 2017

Academic Editor: David Bernardo

Copyright © 2017 Mingxia Zhou et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), which encompasses ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn’s disease (CD), is a complicated, uncontrolled, and multifactorial disorder characterized by chronic, relapsing, or progressive inflammatory conditions that may involve the entire gastrointestinal tract. The protracted nature has imposed enormous economic burdens on patients with IBD, and the treatment is far from optimal due to the currently limited comprehension of IBD pathogenesis. In spite of the exact etiology still remaining an enigma, four identified components, including personal genetic susceptibility, external environment, internal gut microbiota, and the host immune response, are responsible for IBD pathogenesis, and compelling evidence has suggested that IBD may be triggered by aberrant and continuing immune responses to gut microbiota in genetically susceptibility individuals. The past decade has witnessed the flourishing of research on genetics, gut microbiota, and immunity in patients with IBD. Therefore, in this review, we will comprehensively exhibit a series of novel findings and update the major advances regarding these three fields. Undoubtedly, these novel findings have opened a new horizon and shed bright light on the causality research of IBD.