Table 1: Selected candidate genes in the 38 newly associated IBD susceptibility loci.

Gene name Aliases GO annotationsPrevious associated diseasesNovel biological significance in IBDReferences

PTGS2Prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2Protein homodimerization activity and lipid bindingColorectal adenoma and peptic ulcer diseaseInhibiting T cell activation and promoting regulatory T cell development[3840]

LY75Lymphocyte antigen 75Receptor activity and carbohydrate bindingHodgkin lymphoma and lipid pneumoniaParticipating in T cell function and homeostasis[41, 42]

CD28CD28 moleculeIdentical protein binding and SH3/SH2 adaptor activitySezary’s disease and mycosis fungoidesA key costimulatory molecule in T cell activation and preventing aberrant immunological responses to intestinal antigens[43, 44]

CCL20C-C motif chemokine ligand 20Cytokine activity and chemokine activityRheumatoid arthritis and bejelRegulating the migration of T cells (especially regulatory T cells) and dendritic cells to the gut[4547]

NFKBIZNFKB inhibitor zetaTranscription cofactor activityMyxoid liposarcoma and brain glioblastoma multiformeActivate natural killer cell, recruiting monocyte, and regulating Th17 development with ROR nuclear receptors[48, 49]

OSMROncostatin M receptorGrowth factor binding and oncostatin M receptor activityAmyloidosis, primary localized cutaneous, 1 and amyloidosisPromoting intestinal epithelial cell proliferation and wound healing[50]

AHRAryl hydrocarbon receptorTranscription factor activity, sequence-specific DNA binding and protein heterodimerization activityEosinophilic fasciitis and seborrheic dermatitisMaintaining intraepithelial lymphocyte homeostasis and controlling intestinal microbial load and composition[51, 52]

PTK2BProtein tyrosine kinase 2 betaTransferase activity, transferring phosphorus-containing groups and protein tyrosine kinase activityTransient cerebral ischemia and osteoporosisMonocyte migration and neutrophil degranulation[53]

NFATC1Nuclear factor of activated T cells 1Transcription factor activity, sequence-specific DNA binding, and transcription regulatory region DNA bindingBone epithelioid hemangioma and ventricular septal defectSupporting lymphocyte proliferation and inhibiting activation-induced cell death[54, 55]