Table 1: Characteristics of observational studies of legume consumption and risk of mortality included in this meta-analysis.

Study: first author, yearCountry cohort detailsAge (years)SexNumber of cases/number of control (participants)Mean follow-up (years)Exposure assessmentOutcomeAdjustment for covariates

Kelemen et al. (2005)IWHS (USA)55–69M739/29,01715FFQCHD mortality/total mortalityAge, total energy, polyunsaturated fat, monounsaturated fat, trans-fat, total fiber, dietary cholesterol, dietary methionine, alcohol, smoking, activity level, BMI, history of hypertension, saturated fat, postmenopausal hormone use, multivitamin use, vitamin E supplement use, education, family history cancer
Kokubo et al. (2007)JPHC (Japan)40–59M
and F
175/40,46212.5FFQCVD mortalityAge, sex, smoking, alcohol use, BMI, history hypertension or DM, medication use for hypercholesterolaemia, education level, sports, dietary intake of fruits, vegetables, fish, salt and energy, menopausal status for women
Dilis et al. (2012)EPIC (European)20–86M
and F
636/23,92910FFQCHD mortalityAge, BMI, height, physical activity, years of schooling and energy intake entered as continuous variables. Alcohol consumption, smoking status and arterial blood pressure, potatoes, vegetables, fruits and nuts, dairy foods, cereals, meat, fish, eggs, sweets, nonalcoholic beverages, saturated lipids, monounsaturated lipids, polyunsaturated lipids, monounsaturated: saturated lipid ratio
Farvid et al. (2017)The Golestan Cohort Study (Iran)36–85M
and F
3,291/42,40311FFQCVD mortality/total mortalityAge, sex, ethnicity, marital status, residency, smoking, opium use, alcohol, BMI, systolic blood pressure, occupational physical activity, family history of cancer, wealth score, medication, energy intake
Misirli et al. (2012)EPIC (European)25–67M
and F
395/23,60110.6FFQCVD mortalityAge, education, smoking status, BMI, physical activity, hypertension, DM, energy intake
Nagura et al. (2009)JACC (Japan)40–79M
and F
2,243/59,48512.7FFQCVD mortality/total mortalityAge, sex, BMI, smoking status, alcohol intake, hours of walking, hours of sleep, education, perceived mental stress, cholesterol intake, SFA intake, n-3 fatty acids intake, Na intake, history of hypertension, history of diabetes, fruit and vegetable intakes

IWHS, Iowa Women’s Health Study; DM: diabetes mellitus; JPHC, Japan Public Health Center-based; EPIC, European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition; JACC, Japan Collaborative Cohort Study; M: male; F: female; BMI: Body Mass Index; FFQ: food frequency questionnaire; CVD: cardiovascular disease.