Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
BioMed Research International
Volume 2017 (2017), Article ID 9253710, 8 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/9253710
Research Article

EDIN Scale Implemented by Gestational Age for Pain Assessment in Preterms: A Prospective Study

NICU, Fondazione IRCCS Cà Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Università degli Studi di Milano, Milan, Italy

Correspondence should be addressed to G. Cavallaro

Received 29 August 2016; Revised 11 December 2016; Accepted 28 December 2016; Published 8 February 2017

Academic Editor: Jonathan Muraskas

Copyright © 2017 G. Raffaeli et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. K. J. S. Anand and P. R. Hickey, “Pain and its effects in the human neonate and fetus,” New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 317, no. 21, pp. 1321–1328, 1987. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. K. J. S. Anand, “Clinical importance of pain and stress in preterm neonates,” Biology of the Neonate, vol. 73, no. 1, pp. 1–9, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. D. Tibboel, K. J. S. Anand, and J. N. Van Den Anker, “The pharmacological treatment of neonatal pain,” Seminars in Fetal and Neonatal Medicine, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 195–205, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. K. J. S. Anand, V. Coskun, K. V. Thrivikraman, C. B. Nemeroff, and P. M. Plotsky, “Long-term behavioral effects of repetitive pain in neonatal rat pups,” Physiology and Behavior, vol. 66, no. 4, pp. 627–637, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. G. C. Smith, J. Gutovich, C. Smyser et al., “Neonatal intensive care unit stress is associated with brain development in preterm infants,” Annals of Neurology, vol. 70, no. 4, pp. 541–549, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. S. Brummelte, R. E. Grunau, V. Chau et al., “Procedural pain and brain development in premature newborns,” Annals of Neurology, vol. 71, no. 3, pp. 385–396, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. P. Hummel and M. van Dijk, “Pain assessment: current status and challenges,” in Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine, vol. 11, pp. 237–245, Elsevier, New York, NY, USA, 4 edition, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  8. M. Fitzgerald, “What do we really know about newborn infant pain?” Experimental Physiology, vol. 100, no. 12, pp. 1451–1457, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. T. Debillon, V. Zupan, N. Ravault, J.-F. Magny, and M. Dehan, “Development and initial validation of the EDIN scale, a new tool for assessing prolonged pain in preterm infants,” Archives of Disease in Childhood, vol. 85, no. 1, pp. F36–F40, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. P. Hummel, M. Puchalski, S. D. Creech, and M. G. Weiss, “Clinical reliability and validity of the N-PASS: neonatal pain, agitation and sedation scale with prolonged pain,” Journal of Perinatology, vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 55–60, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. M. van Dijk, D. W. E. Roofthooft, K. J. S. Anand et al., “Taking up the challenge of measuring prolonged pain in (premature) neonates: the COMFORTneo scale seems promising,” The Clinical Journal of Pain, vol. 25, no. 7, pp. 607–616, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. M. Fitzgerald, C. Millard, and N. Macintosh, “Hyperalgesia in premature infants,” The Lancet, vol. 331, no. 8580, p. 292, 1988. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. R. E. Grunau, T. F. Oberlander, M. F. Whitfield, C. Fitzgerald, and S. K. Lee, “Demographic and therapeutic determinants of pain reactivity in very low birth weight neonates at 32 weeks' postconceptional age,” Pediatrics, vol. 107, no. 1, pp. 105–112, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. K. Andrews and M. Fitzgerald, “The cutaneous withdrawal reflex in human neonates: sensitization, receptive fields, and the effects of contralateral stimulation,” Pain, vol. 56, no. 1, pp. 95–101, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. K. J. S. Anand, “Pain assessment in preterm neonates,” Pediatrics, vol. 119, no. 3, pp. 605–607, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. G. Ancora, M. Mastrocola, C. Bagnara et al., “Influence of gestational age on the EDIN score: an observational study,” Archives of Disease in Childhood: Fetal and Neonatal Edition, vol. 94, no. 1, pp. F35–F38, 2009. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. E. von Elm, D. G. Altman, M. Egger, S. J. Pocock, P. C. Gøtzsche, and J. P. Vandenbroucke, “The Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) statement: guidelines for reporting observational studies,” International Journal of Surgery, vol. 12, no. 12, pp. 1495–1499, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. P. Lago, E. Garetti, D. Merazzi et al., “Guidelines for procedural pain in the newborn,” Acta Paediatrica, International Journal of Paediatrics, vol. 98, no. 6, pp. 932–939, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. P. M. Boynton and T. Greenhalgh, “Selecting, designing, and developing your questionnaire,” British Medical Journal, vol. 328, no. 7451, pp. 1312–1315, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  20. G. Raffaeli, G. Cristofori, I. Amodeo, A. Griggio, S. Gulden, and F. Mosca, “Modified EDIN Scale implementation in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU): a prospective cohort study,” in Proceedings of the Congress of Joint European Neonatal Societes (jENS), Budapest, Hungary, 2015, https://www.eiseverywhere.com/file_uploads/2f9db64d0134ef7d7549387be9d5f412_PosterBook_4aug15.pdf.
  21. C. C. Johnston, B. Stevens, K. D. Craig, and R. V. E. Grunau, “Developmental changes in pain expression in premature, full-term, two- and four-month-old infants,” Pain, vol. 52, no. 2, pp. 201–208, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. K. D. Craig, M. F. Whitfield, R. V. E. Grunau, J. Linton, and H. D. Hadjistavropoulos, “Pain in the preterm neonate: behavioural and physiological indices,” Pain, vol. 52, no. 3, pp. 287–299, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. B. O. Valeri, L. Holsti, and M. B. M. Linhares, “Neonatal pain and developmental outcomes in children born preterm: a systematic review,” Clinical Journal of Pain, vol. 31, no. 4, pp. 355–362, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. F. Schwaller and M. Fitzgerald, “The consequences of pain in early life: injury-induced plasticity in developing pain pathways,” European Journal of Neuroscience, vol. 39, no. 3, pp. 344–352, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. J. Vinall, S. P. Miller, V. Chau, S. Brummelte, A. R. Synnes, and R. E. Grunau, “Neonatal pain in relation to postnatal growth in infants born very preterm,” Pain, vol. 153, no. 7, pp. 1374–1381, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. R. E. Grunau, J. Weinberg, and M. F. Whitfield, “Neonatal procedural pain and preterm infant cortisol response to novelty at 8 months,” Pediatrics, vol. 114, no. 1, pp. e77–e84, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. R. E. Grunau, L. Holsti, and J. W. Peters, “Long-term consequences of pain in human neonates,” in Seminars in Fetal and Neonatal Medicine, pp. 268–275, Elsevier, 2006. View at Google Scholar
  28. S. M. Doesburg, C. M. Chau, T. P. L. Cheung et al., “Neonatal pain-related stress, functional cortical activity and visual-perceptual abilities in school-age children born at extremely low gestational age,” Pain, vol. 154, no. 10, pp. 1946–1952, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. L. Provenzi, L. Giusti, M. Fumagalli et al., “Pain-related stress in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit and salivary cortisol reactivity to socio-emotional stress in 3-month-old very preterm infants,” Psychoneuroendocrinology, vol. 72, pp. 161–165, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. L. Provenzi and R. Montirosso, “‘Epigenethics’ in the neonatal intensive care unit: conveying complexity in health care for preterm children,” JAMA Pediatrics, vol. 169, no. 7, pp. 617–618, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. R. Montirosso, L. Provenzi, M. Fumagalli et al., “Serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4) methylation associates with neonatal intensive care unit stay and 3-month-old temperament in preterm infants,” Child Development, vol. 87, no. 1, pp. 38–48, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. M. Fitzgerald and S. M. Walker, “Infant pain management: a developmental neurobiological approach,” Nature Clinical Practice Neurology, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 35–50, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. X. Chuanxiong, Y. Lei, Z. Ping, and Z. Xiaoming, “Response to pain by different gestational age neonates,” Journal of Huazhong University of Science and Technology—Medical Science, vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 84–86, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. L. Cornelissen, L. Fabrizi, D. Patten et al., “Postnatal temporal, spatial and modality tuning of nociceptive cutaneous flexion reflexes in human infants,” PLoS ONE, vol. 8, no. 10, Article ID e76470, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus