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BioMed Research International
Volume 2017, Article ID 9372050, 9 pages
Review Article

Multiple Factors Involved in the Pathogenesis of White Matter Lesions

1Department of Neurology, Guangdong Key Laboratory for Diagnosis and Treatment of Major Neurological Diseases, National Key Clinical Department, National Key Discipline, First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510080, China
2Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Prince of Wales Hospital, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong

Correspondence should be addressed to Yuhua Fan; moc.621@nasusnaf

Received 8 August 2016; Revised 9 January 2017; Accepted 26 January 2017; Published 21 February 2017

Academic Editor: Cheng-Xin Gong

Copyright © 2017 Jing Lin et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


White matter lesions (WMLs), also known as leukoaraiosis (LA) or white matter hyperintensities (WMHs), are characterized mainly by hyperintensities on T2-weighted or fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) images. With the aging of the population and the development of imaging technology, the morbidity and diagnostic rates of WMLs are increasing annually. WMLs are not a benign process. They clinically manifest as cognitive decline and the subsequent development of dementia. Although WMLs are important, their pathogenesis is still unclear. This review elaborates on the advances in the understanding of the pathogenesis of WMLs, focusing on anatomy, cerebral blood flow autoregulation, venous collagenosis, blood brain barrier disruption, and genetic factors. In particular, the attribution of WMLs to chronic ischemia secondary to venous collagenosis and cerebral blood flow autoregulation disruption seems reasonable. With the development of gene technology, the effect of genetic factors on the pathogenesis of WMLs is gaining gradual attention.