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BioMed Research International
Volume 2017 (2017), Article ID 9478048, 13 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/9478048
Research Article

Evidence of Immunosuppressive and Th2 Immune Polarizing Effects of Antidiabetic Momordica charantia Fruit Juice

1Laboratory of Cell Biology and Physiology, Department of Biochemistry and Cellular Biology, Faculty of Sciences and Technology (FAST) and Institute of Applied Biomedical Sciences (ISBA), University of Abomey-Calavi, 01 BP 918 Cotonou, Benin
2Laboratory of Biochemistry and Bioactive Natural Substances, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Abomey-Calavi, Cotonou, Benin
3Laboratory of Human Cytogenetics, UFR of Human Biology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Abomey-Calavi, Cotonou, Benin

Correspondence should be addressed to Akadiri Yessoufou; moc.liamg@uofuossey.iridaka

Received 4 April 2017; Accepted 18 June 2017; Published 25 July 2017

Academic Editor: Urszula Demkow

Copyright © 2017 Rufine Fachinan et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

The mechanism of action of the antidiabetic capacity of Momordica charantia is still under investigation. Here, we assessed phytochemical compositions, antioxidant activity, and effects of total and filtered fruit and leafy stem juices of Momordica charantia on human T cell proliferation and differentiation through quantification of Th1/Th2 cytokines. In the absence of stimulation, total fruit and leafy stem juices induced significant T cell proliferation. Under PHA stimulation, both juices potentiated plant-induced T cell proliferation. However, the filtered fruit and leafy stem juices significantly inhibited PHA-stimulated T cell proliferation, while neither juice influenced T cell proliferation. Moreover, total and filtered fruit juice increased IL-4 secretion, while total and filtered leafy stem juice enhanced IFN-γ production. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of tannins, flavonoids, anthocyans, steroids, and triterpenoids in both juices. Alkaloids, quinone derivatives, cardenolides, and cyanogenic derivatives were undetectable. The saponins present in total juices were undetectable after filtration. Moreover, both juices had appreciable antioxidant capacity. Our study supports the type 1 antidiabetic effect of filtered fruit juice of M. charantia which may be related to its immunosuppressive and T-helper 2 cell inducing capacities. Due to their immune-stimulatory activities and their ability to increase T-helper 1 cell cytokines, total fruit and leafy stem juices may serve in the treatment of immunodeficiency and certain infections.