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BioMed Research International
Volume 2017, Article ID 9624702, 7 pages
Research Article

Increased Expression of Toll-Like Receptors 4, 5, and 9 in Small Bowel Mucosa from Patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome

1Department of Medicine, Karolinska Institutet and Center for Digestive Diseases, Karolinska University Hospital, Huddinge, Stockholm, Sweden
2Unit for Laboratory Surveillance of Viral Pathogens and Vaccine Preventable Diseases, Public Health Agency of Sweden, Solna, Sweden
3Department of Clinical Science and Education, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
4Sachs’ Children and Youth Hospital, Södersjukhuset, Stockholm, Sweden
5Unit of Clinical Epidemiology, Department of Medicine Solna, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
6BioDonostia Health Research Institute and Ikerbasque (Basque Science Foundation), Bilbao, Spain

Correspondence should be addressed to Aldona Dlugosz; es.aksnilorak@zsoguld.anodla

Received 31 August 2016; Revised 20 December 2016; Accepted 4 January 2017; Published 29 January 2017

Academic Editor: Yi-Ping Liu

Copyright © 2017 Aldona Dlugosz et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


The aim of our study was to compare patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and healthy controls regarding the expression of toll-like receptors 2, 4, 5, and 9 (TLR2, TLR4, TLR5, and TLR9), the primary mucosal receptors of bacterial components, in small and large bowel mucosa. Methods. We analysed biopsies from jejunum and sigmoid colon of 22 patients (17 females) with IBS aged 18–66 (median: 39) years and 14 healthy volunteers (12 females) aged 22–61 (median: 42) years. Eight patients had constipation-predominant IBS (C-IBS), 7 had diarrhoea-predominant IBS (D-IBS), and 7 had IBS without predominance of constipation or diarrhoea. We analysed mRNA levels for TLRs using quantitative PCR and distribution of TLRs in mucosa using immunohistochemistry. Results. We found increased mRNA expression of TLR4 (mean fold change versus ; ), TLR5 ( versus ; ) and TLR9 ( versus ; ) but not of TLR2 in the small bowel mucosa from patients with IBS compared to the controls. There was no significant difference in mRNA levels for TLRs in colon mucosa between patients and controls. Conclusion. Upregulation of TLR4, TLR5, and TLR9 suggests the involvement of bacteria or dysregulation of the immune response to commensal flora in small bowel mucosa in IBS patients.