Summary of the antifatigue functions and possible mechanisms of mushrooms.
|Antifatigue functions of mushrooms||Detailed mechanisms|
|Muscular function improvement||(i) Inhibits production and accelerate clearance of lactic acid;|
(ii) Increases glycogen storage in liver and muscle;
(iii) Reduces blood urea nitrogen from protein breakdown;
(iv) Increases lactate dehydrogenase activity;
(v) Promotes the expression of skeletal muscle key metabolic regulators of AMPK, PGC-1α, and PPAR-δ;
(vi) Stimulates the expression of lactate monocarboxylate transporter and glucose transporter.
|Antioxidant function||(i) Scavenges DPPH, hydroxyl radical, superoxide anion radical, and nitric oxide;|
(ii) Inhibits lipid peroxidation;
(iii) Stimulates antioxidant enzymes of SOD, GSH-Px, catalase, and glutathione reductase.
|Cardiovascular function improvement||(i) Vasodilation in areas that need blood supply increase.|
|Immunomodulation enhancement||(i) Activates macrophages to engulf foreign invaders;|
(ii) Increases T helper cells to control and regulate other immune cells;
(iii) Increases T helper: T suppressor cells to enhance immune system activity;
(iv) Increases natural kill cells activity to identify and remove foreign invaders;
(v) Improves cytokines expression to regulate cellular communication and immune response in infective sites.
|Hormone regulation improvement||(i) Balances testosterone level to improve muscle development.|
|Hepatic function improvement||(i) Increases energy state by increasing ATP to Pi ratio;|
(ii) Increases liver blood flow;
(iii) Promotes liver protein and RNA synthesis.
|Blood glucose regulation improvement||(i) Increases circulating insulin to reduce glucose back to normal;|
(ii) Increases relevant enzyme activities including glucokinase, hexokinase, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase to increase glucose metabolic rate.