Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
BioMed Research International
Volume 2017, Article ID 9749802, 8 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/9749802
Review Article

Gallstones in Patients with Chronic Liver Diseases

Department of Hepatology, The First Hospital of Jilin University, Jilin University, Changchun, China

Correspondence should be addressed to Pujun Gao; moc.361@1140jpg

Received 2 September 2016; Accepted 11 January 2017; Published 31 January 2017

Academic Editor: Fumio Imazeki

Copyright © 2017 Xu Li et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. W. H. Shehadi, “The biliary system through the ages,” International Surgery, vol. 64, no. 6, pp. 63–78, 1979. View at Google Scholar
  2. D. J. Barker, M. J. Gardner, C. Power, and M. S. Hutt, “Prevalence of gall stones at necropsy in nine British towns: a collaborative study,” British Medical Journal, vol. 2, no. 6202, pp. 1389–1392, 1979. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  3. P. J. Godrey, T. Bates, M. Harrison, M. B. King, and N. R. Padley, “Gall stones and mortality: a study of all gall stone related deaths in a single health district,” Gut, vol. 25, no. 10, pp. 1029–1033, 1984. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. E. J. Gibney, “Asymptomatic gallstones,” The British Journal of Surgery, vol. 77, no. 4, pp. 368–372, 1990. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  5. P. Portincasa, A. Moschetta, and G. Palasciano, “Cholesterol gallstone disease,” Lancet, vol. 368, no. 9531, pp. 230–239, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. T. Stroffolini, E. Sagnelli, A. Mele, C. Cottone, and P. L. Almasio, “HCV infection is a risk factor for gallstone disease in liver cirrhosis: an Italian epidemiological survey,” Journal of Viral Hepatitis, vol. 14, no. 9, pp. 618–623, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  7. M. Acalovschi, C. Buzas, C. Radu, and M. Grigorescu, “Hepatitis C virus infection is a risk factor for gallstone disease: a prospective hospital-based study of patients with chronic viral C hepatitis,” Journal of Viral Hepatitis, vol. 16, no. 12, pp. 860–866, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. M. Acalovschi, “Gallstones in patients with liver cirrhosis: incidence, etiology, clinical and therapeutical aspects,” World Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 20, no. 23, pp. 7277–7285, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  9. I. Sheen and Y. Liaw, “The prevalence and incidence of cholecystolithiasis in patients with chronic liver diseases: A Prospective Study,” Hepatology, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 538–540, 1989. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. M. Acalovschi, R. Badea, and M. Pascu, “Incidence of gallstones in liver cirrhosis,” The American Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 86, no. 9, pp. 1179–1181, 1991. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. J. F. Davidson, “Alcohol and cholelithiasis: a necropsy survey of cirrhotics,” The American Journal of the Medical Sciences, vol. 244, pp. 703–705, 1962. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. I. A. Bouchier, “Postmortem study of the frequency of gallstones in patients with cirrhosis of the liver,” Gut, vol. 10, no. 9, pp. 705–710, 1969. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  13. P. Nicholas, P. A. Rinaudo, and H. O. Conn, “Increased incidence of cholelithiasis in Laënnec's cirrhosis. A postmortem evaluation of pathogenesis,” Gastroenterology, vol. 63, no. 1, pp. 112–121, 1972. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. H. Goebell, H. D. Rudolph, N. Breuer, W. Hartmann, and H. D. Leder, “The frequency of gallstones in liver cirrhosis (author's transl),” Zeitschrift fur Gastroenterologie, vol. 19, no. 7, pp. 345–355, 1981. View at Google Scholar
  15. D. Samuel, E. Sattouf, C. Degott, and J. P. Benhamou, “[Cirrhosis and biliary lithiasis in France: a postmortem study],” Gastroenterologie Clinique et Biologique, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 39–42, 1988. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. D. Conte, D. Barisani, C. Mandelli et al., “Cholelithiasis in cirrhosis: analysis of 500 cases,” The American Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 86, no. 11, pp. 1629–1632, 1991. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. F. Fornari, G. Civardi, E. Buscarini et al., “Cirrhosis of the liver—a risk factor for development of cholelithiasis in males,” Digestive Diseases and Sciences, vol. 35, no. 11, pp. 1403–1408, 1990. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. D. Conte, M. Fraquelli, F. Fornari, L. Lodi, P. Bodini, and L. Buscarini, “Close relation between cirrhosis and gallstones: cross-sectional and longitudinal survey,” Archives of Internal Medicine, vol. 159, no. 1, pp. 49–52, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. L. Barbara, C. Sama, A. M. M. Labate et al., “A population study on the prevalence of gallstone disease: the Sirmione study,” Hepatology, vol. 7, no. 5, pp. 913–917, 1987. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  20. M. Acalovschi, R. Badea, D. Dumitrascu, and C. Varga, “Prevalence of gallstones in liver cirrhosis: a sonographic survey,” American Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 83, no. 9, pp. 954–956, 1988. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. T. Poynard, I. Lonjon, P. Mathurin et al., “Prevalence of cholelithiasis according to alcoholic liver disease: a possible role of apolipoproteins AI and AII,” Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 75–80, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. A. Maggi, D. Solenghi, A. Panzeri et al., “Prevalence and incidence of cholelithiasis in patients with liver cirrhosis,” Italian Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, vol. 29, no. 4, pp. 330–335, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. A.-N. Elzouki, S. Nilsson, P. Nilsson, H. Verbaan, M. Simanaitis, and S. Lindgren, “The prevalence of gallstones in chronic liver disease is related to degree of liver dysfunction,” Hepato-Gastroenterology, vol. 46, no. 29, pp. 2946–2950, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. M. Acalovschi, D. Blendea, C. Feier et al., “Risk factors for symptomatic gallstones in patients with liver cirrhosis: a case-control study,” American Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 98, no. 8, pp. 1856–1860, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. “Prevalence of gallstone disease in an Italian adult female population. Rome Group for the Epidemiology and Prevention of Cholelithiasis (GREPCO),” American Journal of Epidemiology, vol. 119, no. 5, pp. 796–805, 1984.
  26. “The epidemiology of gallstone disease in Rome, Italy. Part II. Factors associated with the disease,” Hepatology, vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 907–913, 1988. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  27. J. C. U. Coelho, J. Slongo, A. D. Silva et al., “Prevalence of cholelithiasis in patients subjected to liver transplantation for cirrhosis,” Journal of Gastrointestinal and Liver Diseases, vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 405–408, 2010. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. C.-Y. Dai, C.-I. Lin, M.-L. Yeh et al., “Association between gallbladder stones and chronic hepatitis C: ultrasonographic survey in a hepatitis C and B hyperendemic township in Taiwan,” The Kaohsiung Journal of Medical Sciences, vol. 29, no. 8, pp. 430–435, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  29. W. H. Schwesinger, W. E. Kurtin, B. A. Levine, and C. P. Page, “Cirrhosis and alcoholism as pathogenetic factors in piqment gallstone formation,” Annals of Surgery, vol. 201, no. 3, pp. 319–322, 1985. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  30. L. Castellano, I. De Sio, F. Silvestrino, R. Marmo, and C. Del Vecchio Blanco, “Cholelithiasis in patients with chronic active liver disease: evaluation of risk factors,” The Italian Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 27, no. 8, pp. 425–429, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. B. W. Trotman and R. D. Soloway, “Pigment gallstone disease: summary of the national institutes of health—international workshop,” Hepatology, vol. 2, no. 6, pp. 879–884, 1982. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. J. D. Ostrow, “The etiology of pigment gallstones,” Hepatology, vol. 4, no. S2, pp. 215S–222S, 1984. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  33. E. W. Moore, “The role of calcium in the pathogenesis of gallstones: Ca++ electrode studies of model bile salt solutions and other biologic systems,” Hepatology, vol. 4, no. S2, pp. 228S–243S, 1984. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  34. H. Oyabu, M. Tabata, and F. Nakayama, “Nonbacterial transformation of bilirubin in bile,” Digestive Diseases and Sciences, vol. 32, no. 8, pp. 809–816, 1987. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. J. H. Jandl, “The anemia of liver disease: observations on its mechanism,” Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol. 34, no. 3, pp. 390–404, 1955. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  36. R. Raedsch, A. Stiehl, U. Gundert-Remy et al., “Hepatic secretion of bilirubin and biliary lipids in patients with alcoholic cirrhosis of the liver,” Digestion, vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 80–88, 1983. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. G. T. Sulaberidze, N. B. Rachvelishvili, M. T. Zhamutashvili, and G. G. Barbakadze, “HBV as one of the causes for development of cholelithiasis,” Georgian Medical News, no. 168, pp. 56–60, 2009. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. E. J. Bini and J. McGready, “Prevalence of gallbladder disease among persons with hepatitis C virus infection in the United States,” Hepatology, vol. 41, no. 5, pp. 1029–1036, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. Y. Lee, J. Wu, Y. Yang, C. Chang, F. Lu, and C. Chang, “Hepatitis B and hepatitis C associated with risk of gallstone disease in elderly adults,” Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, vol. 62, no. 8, pp. 1600–1602, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  40. M. Loriot, J. Bronowicki, D. Lagorce et al., “Permissiveness of human biliary epithelial cells to infection by hepatitis C virus,” Hepatology, vol. 29, no. 5, pp. 1587–1595, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  41. F. M. Yan, “Hepatitis C virus may infect extrahepatic tissues in patients with hepatitis C,” World Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 6, no. 6, pp. 805–811, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  42. Y. Froutan, A. Alizadeh, F. Mansour-Ghanaei et al., “Gallstone disease founded by ultrasonography in functional dyspepsia: prevalence and associated factors,” International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, vol. 8, no. 7, pp. 11283–11288, 2015. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. G. D. Friedman, W. B. Kannel, and T. R. Dawber, “The epidemiology of gallbladder disease: observations in the Framingham study,” Journal of Chronic Diseases, vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 273–292, 1966. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. R. K. Scragg, A. J. McMichael, and P. A. Baghurst, “Diet, alcohol, and relative weight in gall stone disease: a case-control study,” BMJ, vol. 288, no. 6424, pp. 1113–1119, 1984. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  45. F. Grodstein, G. A. Colditz, D. J. Hunter, J. E. Manson, W. C. Willett, and M. J. Stampfer, “A prospective study of symptomatic gallstones in women: relation with oral contraceptives and other risk factors,” Obstetrics and Gynecology, vol. 84, no. 2, pp. 207–214, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. L. Benvegnù, F. Noventa, L. Chemello, G. Fattovich, and A. Alberti, “Prevalence and incidence of cholecystolithiasis in cirrhosis and relation to the etiology of liver disease,” Digestion, vol. 58, no. 3, pp. 293–298, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. F. Fornari, D. Imberti, M. M. Squillante et al., “Incidence of gallstones in a population of patients with cirrhosis,” Journal of Hepatology, vol. 20, no. 6, pp. 797–801, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. B. Ballantyne and W. G. Wood, “Biochemical and histochemical observations on β-glucuronidase in the mammalian gallbladder,” The American Journal of Digestive Diseases, vol. 13, no. 6, pp. 551–557, 1968. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. M. C. Geokas and H. Rinderknecht, “Plasma arylsulfatase and β-glucuronidase in acute alcoholism,” Clinica Chimica Acta, vol. 46, no. 1, pp. 27–32, 1973. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. I. T. Beck, G. B. Paloschi, P. K. Dinda, and M. Beck, “Effect of intragastric administration of alcohol on the ethanol concentrations and osmolality of pancreatic juice bile, and portal and peripheral blood,” Gastroenterology, vol. 67, no. 3, pp. 484–489, 1974. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. F. Wislöff and D. Boman, “Haemolytic anaemia in alcohol abuse. A review of 14 cases,” Acta Medica Scandinavica, vol. 205, no. 1–6, pp. 237–242, 1979. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  52. K. M. Goebel, F. D. Goebel, R. Schubotz, and J. Schneider, “Hemolytic implications of alcoholism in liver disease,” Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine, vol. 94, no. 1, pp. 123–132, 1979. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. R. A. Cooper, “Hemolytic syndromes and red cell membrane abnormalities in liver disease,” Seminars in Hematology, vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 103–112, 1980. View at Google Scholar
  54. C. di Padova, R. Tritapepe, F. di Padova, P. Rovagnati, and N. Dioguardi, “Acute ethanol administration increases biliary concentrations of total and unconjugated bilirubin in rabbits,” Digestive Diseases and Sciences, vol. 26, no. 12, pp. 1095–1099, 1981. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. C. Di Padova, R. Tritapepe, P. Rovagnati, and F. Di Padova, “Effect of ethanol on biliary unconjugated bilirubin and its implication in pigment gallstone pathogenesis in humans,” Digestion, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 112–117, 1982. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. W. H. Schwesinger and W. E. Kurtin, “Effects of ethanol infusion on serum hemoglobin and bile pigments,” The Journal of Surgical Research, vol. 37, no. 1, pp. 43–47, 1984. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. C. P. Day, “Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: a massive problem,” Clinical Medicine, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 176–178, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  58. E. M. Brunt, “Histopathology of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease,” World Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 16, no. 42, pp. 5286–5296, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  59. P. Loria, A. Lonardo, S. Lombardini et al., “Gallstone disease in non-alcoholic fatty liver: prevalence and associated factors,” Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology (Australia), vol. 20, no. 8, pp. 1176–1184, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. A. L. Fracanzani, L. Valenti, M. Russello et al., “Gallstone disease is associated with more severe liver damage in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease,” PLoS ONE, vol. 7, no. 7, Article ID e41183, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. M. Kwak, D. Kim, G. E. Chung, W. Kim, Y. J. Kim, and J. H. Yoon, “Cholecystectomy is independently associated with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in an Asian population,” World Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 21, no. 20, pp. 6287–6295, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  62. C.-H. Chen, M.-H. Huang, J.-C. Yang et al., “Prevalence and risk factors of gallstone disease in an adult population of Taiwan: an epidemiological survey,” Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, vol. 21, no. 11, pp. 1737–1743, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. J. Liu, H. Lin, C. Zhang et al., “Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease associated with gallstones in females rather than males: a longitudinal cohort study in Chinese urban population,” BMC Gastroenterology, vol. 14, no. 1, article 213, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  64. H. Nomura, S. Kashiwagi, J. Hayashi et al., “Prevalence of gallstone disease in a general population of Okinawa, Japan,” American Journal of Epidemiology, vol. 128, no. 3, pp. 598–605, 1988. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. Y. Lee, J. Wu, Y. Yang, C. Chang, F. Lu, and C. Chang, “Moderate to severe, but not mild, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease associated with increased risk of gallstone disease,” Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 49, no. 8, pp. 1001–1006, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  66. O. Yener, F. Aksoy, M. Demir, A. Özçelik, and C. Erengül, “Gallstones associated with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and metabolic syndrome,” The Turkish Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 411–415, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. N. Ata, M. Kucukazman, B. Yavuz et al., “The metabolic syndrome is associated with complicated gallstone disease,” Canadian Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 25, no. 5, pp. 274–276, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  68. T. Koller, J. Kollerova, T. Hlavaty, M. Huorka, and J. Payer, “Cholelithiasis and markers of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in patients with metabolic risk factors,” Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 47, no. 2, pp. 197–203, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. Y. Yilmaz, T. Ayyildiz, H. Akin et al., “Gallstone disease does not predict liver histology in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease,” Gut and Liver, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 313–317, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  70. F. L. Iber, G. Caruso, C. Polepalle, V. Kuchipudi, and M. Chinoy, “Increasing prevalence of gallstones in male veterans with alcoholic cirrhosis,” The American Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 85, no. 12, pp. 1593–1596, 1990. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  71. H. V. Steinberg, W. W. Beckett, J. L. Chezmar, W. E. Torres, F. B. Murphy, and M. E. Bernardino, “Incidence of cholelithiasis among patients with cirrhosis and portal hypertension,” Gastrointestinal Radiology, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 347–350, 1988. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  72. T. Genzini, M. P. De Miranda, A. De Oliveira e Silva et al., “Cholelithiasis in cirrhotic patients: analysis of cholelithiasis among patients with liver cirrhosis in São Paulo, Brazil,” Arquivos de Gastroenterologia, vol. 33, no. 2, pp. 52–59, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  73. A. K. Diehl, W. H. Schwesinger, D. R. Holleman Jr., J. B. Chapman, and W. E. Kurtin, “Clinical correlates of gallstone composition: distinguishing pigment from cholesterol stones,” The American Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 90, no. 6, pp. 967–972, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  74. S. Sherlock and J. S. Dooley, Diseases of the Liver and Biliary System, Wiley-Blackwell, Padova, Italy, 11th edition, 2002.
  75. D. Alvaro, M. Angelico, C. Gandin, S. G. Corradini, and L. Capocaccia, “Physico-chemical factors predisposing to pigment gallstone formation in liver cirrhosis,” Journal of Hepatology, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 228–234, 1990. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  76. P. Mathurin, D. Vidaud, M. Vidaud et al., “Quantification of apolipoprotein A-I and B messenger RNA in heavy drinkers according to liver disease,” Hepatology, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 44–51, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  77. T. Zhang, N. Xie, W. He et al., “An integrated proteomics and bioinformatics analyses of hepatitis B virus X interacting proteins and identification of a novel interactor apoA-I,” Journal of Proteomics, vol. 84, pp. 92–105, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  78. M. Acalovschi, D. L. Dumitraçcu, and I. Csakany, “Gastric and gall bladder emptying of a mixed meal are not coordinated in liver cirrhosis—a simultaneous sonographic study,” Gut, vol. 40, no. 3, pp. 412–417, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  79. C. Li, S. Hwang, F. Lee et al., “Evaluation of gallbladder motility in patients with liver cirrhosis,” Digestive Diseases and Sciences, vol. 45, no. 6, pp. 1109–1114, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  80. S. H. Saverymuttu, A. Grammatopoulos, C. I. Meanock, J. D. Maxwell, and A. E. A. Joseph, “Gallbladder wall thickening (congestive cholecystopathy) in chronic liver disease: a sign of portal hypertension,” British Journal of Radiology, vol. 63, no. 756, pp. 922–925, 1990. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  81. C.-H. Kao, J.-F. Hsieh, S.-C. Tsai, Y.-J. Ho, and S.-D. Chen, “Evidence of impaired gallbladder function in patients with liver cirrhosis by quantitative radionuclide cholescintigraphy,” The American Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 95, no. 5, pp. 1301–1304, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  82. N. Kurihara, H. Ide, T. Omata et al., “Evaluation of gallbladder emptying in patients with chronic liver disease by 99mTc-EHIDA hepatobiliary scintigraphy,” Radioisotopes, vol. 38, no. 6, pp. 269–274, 1989. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  83. C. Buzaş, O. Chira, T. Mocan, and M. Acalovschi, “Comparative study of gallbladder motility in patients with chronic HCV hepatitis and with HCV cirrhosis,” Romanian Journal of Internal Medicine, vol. 49, no. 1, pp. 37–44, 2011. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  84. A. Brogna, M. Loreno, S. Travali, A. M. Bucceri, G. Scalisi, and C. Virgilio, “Ultrasonographic study of gallbladder wall thickness and emptying in cirrhotic patients without gallstones,” Gastroenterology Research and Practice, vol. 2009, Article ID 683040, 5 pages, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  85. T. Barreca, R. Franceschini, A. Cataldi, and E. Rolandi, “Plasma somatostatin response to an oral mixed test meal in cirrhotic patients,” Journal of Hepatology, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 40–44, 1991. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  86. F. W. Lewis, O. Adair, K. F. Hossack, G. T. Everson, J. C. White, and W. G. Rector Jr., “Plasma glucagon concentration in cirrhosis is related to liver function but not to portal-systemic shunting, systemic vascular resistance, or urinary sodium excretion,” The Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine, vol. 117, no. 1, pp. 67–75, 1991. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  87. S. Himeno, S. Tarui, S. Kanayama et al., “Plasma Cholecystokinin Responses after Ingestion of Liquid Meal and Intraduodenal Infusion of Fat, Amino Acids, or Hydrochloric Acid in Man: Analysis with Region Specific Radioimmunoassay,” The American Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 78, no. 11, pp. 703–707, 1983. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  88. L. I. Paloheimo, O. Clemmesen, K. Dalhoff, and J. F. Rehfeld, “Plasma cholecystokinin and its precursors in hepatic cirrhosis,” Journal of Hepatology, vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 299–305, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  89. G. R. Leopold, J. Amberg, B. B. Gosink, and C. Mittelstaedt, “Gray scale ultrasonic cholecystography: a comparison with conventional radiographic techniques,” Radiology, vol. 121, no. 2, pp. 445–448, 1976. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  90. D. Castaing, D. Houssin, J. Lemoine, and H. Bismuth, “Surgical management of gallstones in cirrhotic patients,” The American Journal of Surgery, vol. 146, no. 3, pp. 310–313, 1983. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  91. Y. Ishizaki, Y. Bandai, K. Shimomura et al., “Management of gallstones in cirrhotic patients,” Surgery Today, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 36–39, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  92. A. Puggioni and L. L. Wong, “A metaanalysis of laparoscopic cholecystectomy in patients with cirrhosis,” Journal of the American College of Surgeons, vol. 197, no. 6, pp. 921–926, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  93. G. V. Aranha, S. J. Sontag, and H. B. Greenlee, “Cholecystectomy in cirrhotic patients: a formidable operation,” The American Journal of Surgery, vol. 143, no. 1, pp. 55–60, 1982. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  94. R. N. Garrison, H. M. Cryer, H. C. Polk Jr., and D. A. Howard, “Clarification of risk factors for abdominal operations in patients with hepatic cirrhosis,” Annals of Surgery, vol. 199, no. 6, pp. 648–655, 1984. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  95. R. S. Bloch, “Cholecystectomy in patients with cirrhosis. A surgical challenge,” Archives of Surgery, vol. 120, no. 6, pp. 669–672, 1985. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  96. M. A. Yerdel, H. Tsuge, H. Mimura, K. Sakagami, M. Mori, and K. Orita, “Laparoscopic cholecystectomy in cirrhotic patients: expanding indications,” Surgical Laparoscopy & Endoscopy, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 180–183, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  97. J. L. Poggio, C. M. Rowland, G. J. Gores, D. M. Nagorney, and J. H. Donohue, “A comparison of laparoscopic and open cholecystectomy in patients with compensated cirrhosis and symptomatic gallstone disease,” Surgery, vol. 127, no. 4, pp. 405–411, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  98. Y. Cheng, X.-Z. Xiong, S.-J. Wu, Y.-X. Lin, and N.-S. Cheng, “Laparoscopic vs. open cholecystectomy for cirrhotic patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis,” Hepato-Gastroenterology, vol. 59, no. 118, pp. 1727–1734, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  99. B. de Goede, P. J. Klitsie, S. M. Hagen et al., “Meta-analysis of laparoscopic versus open cholecystectomy for patients with liver cirrhosis and symptomatic cholecystolithiasis,” The British Journal of Surgery, vol. 100, no. 2, pp. 209–216, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  100. S. Delis, A. Bakoyiannis, J. Madariaga, J. Bramis, N. Tassopoulos, and C. Dervenis, “Laparoscopic cholecystectomy in cirrhotic patients: the value of MELD score and ChildPugh classification in predicting outcome,” Surgical Endoscopy and Other Interventional Techniques, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 407–412, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  101. R. C. Quillin III, J. M. Burns, J. A. Pineda et al., “Laparoscopic cholecystectomy in the cirrhotic patient: predictors of outcome,” Surgery, vol. 153, no. 5, pp. 634–640, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  102. N. F. Fernandes, W. H. Schwesinger, S. G. Hilsenbeck et al., “Laparoscopic cholecystectomy and cirrhosis: a case-control study of outcomes,” Liver Transplantation, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 340–344, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  103. M. Morino, G. Cavuoti, C. Miglietta, G. Giraudo, and P. Simone, “Laparoscopic cholecystectomy in cirrhosis: contraindication or privileged indication?” Surgical Laparoscopy, Endoscopy & Percutaneous Techniques, vol. 10, no. 6, pp. 360–363, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  104. L. Urban, G. A. Eason, S. Remine et al., “Laparoscopic cholecystectomy in patients with early cirrhosis,” Current Surgery, vol. 58, no. 3, pp. 312–315, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  105. M. J. O'Sullivan, D. Evoy, C. O'Donnell et al., “Gallstones and laparoscopic cholecystectomy in hepatitis C patients,” Irish Medical Journal, vol. 94, no. 4, pp. 114–117, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  106. N. Leone, M. Garino, P. De Paolis, R. Pellicano, G. R. Fronda, and M. Rizzetto, “Laparoscopic cholecystectomy in cirrhotic patients,” Digestive Surgery, vol. 18, no. 6, pp. 449–452, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  107. C. N. Yeh, M. F. Chen, and Y. Y. Jan, “Laparoscopic cholecystectomy in 226 cirrhotic patients: experience of a single center in Taiwan,” Surgical Endoscopy and Other Interventional Techniques, vol. 16, no. 11, pp. 1583–1587, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  108. B. Hanson, J. Roat, and C. Pocha, “Cholecystitis and gallbladder perforation in cirrhotic patients: a clinical dilemma,” Digestive and Liver Disease, vol. 46, no. 10, pp. 960–961, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus