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BioMed Research International
Volume 2017, Article ID 9804693, 9 pages
Research Article

Local Anesthetics, Procaine, Lidocaine, and Mepivacaine Show Vasodilatation but No Type 1 Allergy: A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study

1Department of Gynecological Endocrinology and Fertility Disorders, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany
2Outpatient Practice Drs. Weinschenk, Scherer and Colleagues, Bahnhofplatz 8, 76137 Karlsruhe, Germany
3Heidelberg University Neural Therapy Education and Research Group (The HUNTER Group), Heidelberg, Germany
4Medical School, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany
5Institute of Educational Science, University of Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany
6Department of Anesthesiology AMC Amsterdam, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, Netherlands

Correspondence should be addressed to Stefan Weinschenk

Received 6 April 2017; Revised 16 July 2017; Accepted 31 October 2017; Published 11 December 2017

Academic Editor: Andreas Sandner-Kiesling

Copyright © 2017 Stefan Weinschenk et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Background. Therapy with local anesthetics (LAs), also known as neural therapy, is used in integrative medicine because of its anti-inflammatory properties. Ester-linked LAs are often avoided because of their alleged high allergenicity. Little data supports this assumption and hence the importance of our investigation on type-1 allergies against ester- and amide-linked LAs. We performed a prospective, double-blinded, placebo-controlled observational study. Methods. 177 patients received 340 intracutaneous injections with 1% procaine, 0.5% lidocaine, 1% mepivacaine, or saline solution. Every patient received two different tests on each forearm. Reactions were monitored for 15 minutes. Results. No type-1 allergy was observed. The mean erythema diameter of the wheals after 10 minutes was procaine  mm, mepivacaine  mm, lidocaine  mm, and NaCl  mm. The wheal diameter of all substances showed a crescendo-decrescendo phenomenon. The procaine and mepivacaine wheals were significantly larger than those of lidocaine and NaCl. No general signs of hypersensitivity were observed. Diameter and intensity were independent of the injection site, order of injection, age, gender, and body mass index. Conclusion. This study shows no higher type-1 allergenicity of the ester-linked LA procaine, compared to the amide-linked LAs lidocaine and mepivacaine, and supports its use in therapy and short-track surgery.