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BioMed Research International
Volume 2018, Article ID 1345282, 15 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/1345282
Research Article

Chronic Consumption of Sweeteners and Its Effect on Glycaemia, Cytokines, Hormones, and Lymphocytes of GALT in CD1 Mice

1Laboratorio de Investigación en Nutrición, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México, Paseo Tollocan, Esquina Jesús Carranza s/n, Colonia Moderna de la Cruz, 50180 Toluca, MEX, Mexico
2Laboratorio de Inmunología de Mucosas, Escuela Superior de Medicina, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Plan de San Luis y Díaz Mirón, 11340 Ciudad de México, Mexico
3Laboratorio de Microbiología Medicina y Ambiental, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México, Paseo Tollocan, Esquina Jesús Carranza s/n, Colonia Moderna de la Cruz, 50180 Toluca, MEX, Mexico

Correspondence should be addressed to Beatriz Elina Martínez-Carrillo; moc.liamtoh@9anile_zenitram

Received 10 November 2017; Revised 27 February 2018; Accepted 13 March 2018; Published 24 April 2018

Academic Editor: Yin Li

Copyright © 2018 Cristian Angel Rosales-Gómez et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Background. The consumption of sweeteners has increased in recent years, being used to control body weight and blood glucose. However, they can cause increased appetite, modification of immune function, and secretion of hormones in the GALT. Objective. To assess the effect of chronic sweetener consumption on glycaemia, cytokines, hormones, and GALT lymphocytes in CD1 mice. Material and Methods. 72 CD1 mice divided into 3 groups were used: (a) baseline, (b) middle, and (c) final. Groups (b) and (c) were divided into 4 subgroups: (i) Control, (ii) Sucrose, (iii) Sucralose, and (iv) Stevia. The following were determined: body weight, hormones (GIP, insulin, and leptin), lymphocytes CD3+T cells and CD19+B cells, IgA+ plasma cells, and cytokines (IL-4, IL-5, IFN-γ, and TNF-α). Results. Sucralose reduces secretion of GIP and glycaemia but does not modify insulin concentration, increases body weight, and reduces food intake. Stevia increases the secretion of GIP, insulin, leptin, body weight, and glycaemia but keeps food consumption normal. Sucralose and Stevia showed a higher percentage of CD3+T cells, CD19+B cells, and IgA+ plasma cells in Peyer’s patches, but only Stevia in lamina propria. Conclusion. Sweeteners modulate the hormonal response of cytokines and the proliferation of lymphocytes in the intestinal mucosa.