Research Article

Effects of Surface Nanotopography and Calcium Chemistry of Titanium Bone Implants on Early Blood Platelet and Macrophage Cell Function

Figure 3

Surface characteristics of the investigated surfaces. (a) Ra values. (b) Water contact angles. (c) Surface energies. Data are presented as the mean ± SD. < 0.05 compared with the other surface; < 0.05 between two surfaces.