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BioMed Research International
Volume 2018, Article ID 1653721, 18 pages
Review Article

Relationship between High Temperature and Formation of Chalkiness and Their Effects on Quality of Rice

1State Key Laboratory of Rice Biology, China National Rice Research Institute, Hangzhou 310006, China
2Bangladesh Institute of Nuclear Agriculture, BAU Campus, Mymensingh 2202, Bangladesh
3Institute of Tropical Agriculture and Food Security, Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM), 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
4School of Agriculture Science and Biotechnology, Faculty of Bioresources and Food Industry, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Besut Campus, 22200 Besut, Terengganu, Malaysia
5Laboratory of Science and Technology, Institute of Plantation Studies, Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM), 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
6Department of Crop Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM), 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia

Correspondence should be addressed to M. R. Ismail; ym.ude.mpu@izar

Received 9 November 2017; Accepted 24 January 2018; Published 1 April 2018

Academic Editor: Rituraj Purohit

Copyright © 2018 A. Y. M. Nevame et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Occurrence of chalkiness in rice is attributed to genetic and environmental factors, especially high temperature (HT). The HT induces heat stress, which in turn compromises many grain qualities, especially transparency. Chalkiness in rice is commonly studied together with other quality traits such as amylose content, gel consistency, and protein storage. In addition to the fundamental QTLs, some other QTLs have been identified which accelerate chalkiness occurrence under HT condition. In this review, some of the relatively stable chalkiness, amylose content, and gel consistency related QTLs have been presented well. Genetically, HT effect on chalkiness is explained by the location of certain chalkiness gene in the vicinity of high-temperature-responsive genes. With regard to stable QTL distribution and availability of potential material resources, there is still feasibility to find out novel stable QTLs related to chalkiness under HT condition. A better understanding of those achievements is essential to develop new rice varieties with a reduced chalky grain percentage. Therefore, we propose the pyramiding of relatively stable and nonallelic QTLs controlling low chalkiness endosperm into adaptable rice varieties as pragmatic approach to mitigate HT effect.