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BioMed Research International
Volume 2018, Article ID 2367615, 7 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/2367615
Research Article

Patients with Achilles Tendon Rupture Have a Degenerated Contralateral Achilles Tendon: An Elastography Study

1Department of Sports Medicine, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, China
2Institute of Biomedical Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai, China
3Institute for Advanced Communication and Data Science, Shanghai University, Shanghai, China
4Department of Ultrasound, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, China

Correspondence should be addressed to Yinghui Hua; moc.nuyila@msoc_auh

Received 9 October 2018; Accepted 21 November 2018; Published 6 December 2018

Academic Editor: Tobias De Zordo

Copyright © 2018 Qianru Li et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Purpose. To evaluate differences of Achilles tendon (AT) hardness and morphology between asymptomatic tendons in patients with acute AT ruptures on the contralateral side and asymptomatic tendons in healthy people by using computer-assisted quantification on axial-strain sonoelastography (ASE). Methods. The study consisted of 33 asymptomatic tendons in 33 patients (study group) and 34 tendons in 19 healthy volunteers (control group). All the tendons were examined by both ASE and conventional ultrasound. Computer-assisted quantification on ASE was applied to extract hardness variables, including the mean (Hmean), percentile (H20), median (H50) and skewness (Hsk) of the hardness within tendon, and the ratio of the mean hardness within tendon to that outside tendon (Hratio) and three morphological variables: the thickness (THK), cross-sectional area, and eccentricity (ECC) of tendons. Results. The Hmean, Hsk, H20, H50, and Hratio in the proximal third of the tendon body in study group were significantly smaller than those in control group (Hmean: 0.43±0.09 vs 0.50±0.07, p=0.001; Hsk: -0.53±0.51 vs -1.09±0.51, p<0.001; H20: 0.31±0.10 vs 0.40±0.10, p=0.001; H50: 0.45±0.10 vs 0.53±0.08, p<0.001; Hratio: 1.01±0.25 vs 1.20±0.23, p=0.003). The THK and cross-sectional area of tendons in the study group were larger than those in the control group (p<0.05). Conclusions. As a quantitative objective method, the computer-assisted ASE reveals that the asymptomatic ATs contralateral to acute rupture are softer than those of healthy control group at the proximal third and the asymptomatic tendons in people with rupture history are thicker, larger, and rounder than those of normal volunteers especially at the middle and distal thirds of AT body.