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BioMed Research International
Volume 2018, Article ID 2476824, 9 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/2476824
Review Article

Alternative and Natural Therapies for Acute Lung Injury and Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome

1Division of Pulmonology, Norton Thoracic Institute, St. Joseph’s Hospital and Medical Center, Phoenix, AZ, USA
2Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA
3Division of Applied Medicine, School of Korean Medicine, Pusan National University, Yangsan 626-870, Republic of Korea
4Department of Veterans Affairs, Atlanta VAMC, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, USA
5Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, USA

Correspondence should be addressed to Vipul J. Patel; moc.liamg@demlupiv

Received 20 July 2017; Accepted 8 April 2018; Published 16 May 2018

Academic Editor: Joanna Domagala-Kulawik

Copyright © 2018 Vipul J. Patel et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Introduction. Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a complex clinical syndrome characterized by acute inflammation, microvascular damage, and increased pulmonary vascular and epithelial permeability, frequently resulting in acute respiratory failure and death. Current best practice for ARDS involves “lung-protective ventilation,” which entails low tidal volumes and limiting the plateau pressures in mechanically ventilated patients. Although considerable progress has been made in understanding the pathogenesis of ARDS, little progress has been made in the development of specific therapies to combat injury and inflammation. Areas Covered. In recent years, several natural products have been studied in experimental models and have been shown to inhibit multiple inflammatory pathways associated with acute lung injury and ARDS at a molecular level. Because of the pleiotropic effects of these agents, many of them also activate antioxidant pathways through nuclear factor erythroid-related factor 2, thereby targeting multiple pathways. Several of these agents are prescribed for treatment of inflammatory conditions in the Asian subcontinent and have shown to be relatively safe. Expert Commentary. Here we review natural remedies shown to attenuate lung injury and inflammation in experimental models. Translational human studies in patients with ARDS may facilitate treatment of this devastating disease.