Degalactotigonin, a Steroidal Glycoside from Solanum nigrum, Induces Apoptosis and Cell Cycle Arrest via Inhibiting the EGFR Signaling Pathways in Pancreatic Cancer Cells
Effect of for 1 on EGF-induced activation of EGFR in PANC1 cells. (a, b, and c) Serum-starved PANC1 cells were stimulated with EGF (100 ng/mL) in the presence of the indicted concentrations of 1 for 5 min. Whole cell lysates were prepared and Western blotting was performed to determine the expression level of p-EGFR (a), EGFR (a), p-Akt (b), Akt (b), p-ERK (c), and ERK (c). -Tubulin was used as a loading control. The blots were quantified by Image J software and the levels of p-EGFR, p-Akt, and p-ERK (normalized to EGFR, Akt, and ERK, respectively) were expressed as the mean ± SD of three independent experiments. P<0.05, P<0.01 versus EGF only treated control.