Table 3: Annual costs according to health state.

Cost factorMean costs per year Underlying calculations

Costs per AF-patient receiving OAC, stroke, alive€17,518100%   inpatient stroke costs + 100%   stroke rehabilitation costs + 100%   outpatient costs after stroke hospitalization + 100%   oral anticoagulation costs

Costs per AF-patient receiving OAC, fatal stroke€11,852100%   inpatient stroke costs + 46% (proportion of patients with at least 4 weeks survival) stroke rehabilitation costs + 50%   outpatient costs after stroke hospitalization + 50%   oral anticoagulation costs

Costs per AF-patient receiving OAC, no stroke, alive€678100%   oral anticoagulation costs

Costs per AF-patient receiving OAC, no stroke, death€33950%   oral anticoagulation costs

Costs per AF-patient (not detected, no OAC), stroke, alive€19,143100%   inpatient stroke costs 1,34 (cost increase due to untreated AF [33]) + 100%   stroke rehabilitation costs + 100%   outpatient costs after stroke + 100%   costs ASA treatment

Costs per AF-patient (not detected, no OAC), fatal stroke€13,808100%   inpatient stroke costs 1,34 (cost increase due to untreated AF [33]) + 46% (proportion of patients with at least 4 weeks survival) stroke rehabilitation costs + 50%   outpatient costs after stroke + 50%   costs ASA treatment

Costs per AF-patient (not detected, no OAC), no stroke, alive-No costs considered

Costs per AF-patient (not detected, no OAC), no stroke, death-No costs considered

Cost per no AF-patient, stroke, alive€16,855100%   inpatient stroke costs + 100%   stroke rehabilitation costs + 100%   outpatient costs after stroke hospitalization + 100%   costs ASA treatment

Cost per no AF-patient, fatal stroke€11,520100%   inpatient stroke costs + 46% (proportion of patients with at least 4 weeks survival) stroke rehabilitation costs + 50%   outpatient costs after stroke hospitalization + 50%   costs ASA treatment

Cost per no AF-patient, no stroke, alive-No costs considered

Cost per no AF-patient, no stroke, death-No costs considered

Cost of Major bleeding€1,995Mean attributable costs due to major bleedings according to Bufe et al. 2009 [34] (ranging from €891 to €5,415)

For deceased patients, we assumed the costs for medications and outpatient treatment for a half year (50%).
Annual unit costs used for calculations above: inpatient stroke costs €6,731 [35], stroke rehabilitation costs €6,822 [35], outpatient costs after stroke hospitalization €3,287 [35], oral anticoagulation costs €65.70 for Warfarin and €1,241.00 for Rivaroxaban [16] (weighted mean: €678.18), and costs of ASA treatment €14.60 [16].
ASA: acetylsalicylic acid; AF: atrial fibrillation; OAC: oral anticoagulation.