Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
BioMed Research International
Volume 2018 (2018), Article ID 3921247, 7 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/3921247
Review Article

Salivary Biomarkers in Systemic Sclerosis Disease

Biomedical Genomics and Oncogenetics Research Laboratory, Faculty of Sciences and Techniques of Tangier, Abdelmalek Essaâdi University, Tetouan, Morocco

Correspondence should be addressed to Zeineb Zian; am.ca.eau@naiz.z

Received 19 October 2017; Revised 14 January 2018; Accepted 11 February 2018; Published 12 March 2018

Academic Editor: Fernando C. e Silva

Copyright © 2018 Zeineb Zian et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. J. Martin and C. Fonseca, “The genetics of scleroderma,” Current Rheumatology Reports, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 13–20, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. C. E. Weckerle and T. B. Niewold, “The unexplained female predominance of systemic lupus erythematosus: Clues from genetic and cytokine studies,” Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology, vol. 40, no. 1, pp. 42–49, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. B. Admou and et al., “Faible prévalence des anticorps anti-centromère dans la sclérodermie au Maroc (à propos de 272 cas),” Annales de Biologie Clinique, vol. 65, no. 3, pp. 291–297, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  4. F. D. Carmona, J. Martin, L. Beretta et al., “The Systemic Lupus Erythematosus IRF5 Risk Haplotype Is Associated with Systemic Sclerosis,” PLoS ONE, vol. 8, no. 1, p. e54419, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  5. J. B. Albilia, D. K. Lam, N. Blanas, C. M. L. Clokie, and G. K. B. Sándor, “Small mouths⋯big problems? A review of scleroderma and its oral health implications,” Journal of the Canadian Dental Association, vol. 73, no. 9, pp. 831–836, 2007. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. C. Cazal, A. P. V. Sobral, R. F. N. Neves, F. W. V. Freire-Filho, A. B. Cardoso, and M. M. F. da Silveira, “Oral complaints in progressive systemic sclerosis: two cases report,” Medicina Oral Patologia Oral y Cirugia Bucal, vol. 13, no. 2, p. 114, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  7. M. Knaś, A. Zalewska, N. Waszkiewicz et al., “Salivary: flow and proteins of the innate and adaptive immunity in the limited and diffused systemic sclerosis,” Journal of Oral Pathology & Medicine, vol. 43, no. 7, pp. 521–529, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. G. I. Mason, J. Hamburger, and J. B. Matthews, “Mast cells, extracellular matrix components, TGFβ isoforms and TGFβ receptor expression in labial salivary glands in systemic sclerosis,” Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, vol. 59, no. 3, pp. 183–189, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. S. R. Porter, C. Scully, and A. M. Hegarty, “An update of the etiology and management of xerostomia,” Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology, Oral Radiology, and Endodontology, vol. 97, no. 1, pp. 28–46, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. M. Baron, M. Hudson, S. Tatibouet et al., “Relationship between disease characteristics and orofacial manifestations in systemic sclerosis: Canadian systemic sclerosis oral health study III,” Arthritis Care & Research, vol. 67, no. 5, pp. 681–690, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. M. Hebbar, J.-M. Gillot, E. Hachulla et al., “Early expression of E-selectin, tumor necrosis factor α, and mast cell infiltration in the salivary glands of patients with systemic sclerosis,” Arthritis & Rheumatology, vol. 39, no. 7, pp. 1161–1165, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. L. Giusti, F. Sernissi, E. Donadio et al., “Salivary psoriasin (S100A7) correlates with diffusion capacity of carbon monoxide in a large cohort of systemic sclerosis patients,” Journal of Translational Medicine, vol. 14, no. 1, article no. 262, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. C. Baldini and et al., “Association of psoriasin (S100A7) with clinical manifestations of systemic sclerosis: is its presence in whole saliva a potential predictor of pulmonary involvement?” The Journal of Rheumatology, vol. 35, no. 9, pp. 1820–1824, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  14. L. Giusti and et al., “Specific proteins identified in whole saliva from patients with diffuse systemic sclerosis,” The Journal of Rheumatology, vol. 34, no. 10, pp. 2063–2069, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  15. E. Lamy, A. R. Costa, C. M. Antunes, R. Vitorino, and F. Amado, “Protein Electrophoresis in Saliva Study,” in Electrophoresis, K. Ghowsi, Ed., InTech, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  16. S. Hu, J. A. Loo, and D. T. Wong, “Human saliva proteome analysis and disease biomarker discovery,” Expert Review of Proteomics, vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 531–538, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. S. Podzimek, L. Vondrackova, J. Duskova, T. Janatova, and Z. Broukal, “Salivary Markers for Periodontal and General Diseases,” Disease Markers, vol. 2016, Article ID 9179632, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. T. Pfaffe, J. Cooper-White, P. Beyerlein, K. Kostner, and C. Punyadeera, “Diagnostic potential of saliva: current state and future applications,” Clinical Chemistry, vol. 57, no. 5, pp. 675–687, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. R. M. Silver and C. P. Denton, Case Studies in Systemic Sclerosis, Springer London, London, UK, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  20. P. V. Rao, A. P. Reddy, X. Lu et al., “Proteomic identification of salivary biomarkers of type-2 diabetes,” Journal of Proteome Research, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 239–245, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. E. Lamy and M. Mau, “Saliva proteomics as an emerging, non-invasive tool to study livestock physiology, nutrition and diseases,” Journal of Proteomics, vol. 75, no. 14, pp. 4251–4258, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. S. A. Kawas, Z. H. A. Rahim, and D. B. Ferguson, “Potential uses of human salivary protein and peptide analysis in the diagnosis of disease,” Archives of Oral Biolog, vol. 57, no. 1, pp. 1–9, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. A. Zhang, H. Sun, P. Wang, and X. Wang, “Salivary proteomics in biomedical research,” Clinica Chimica Acta, vol. 415, pp. 261–265, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. M. Gröschl, H. Köhler, H.-G. Topf, T. Rupprecht, and M. Rauh, “Evaluation of saliva collection devices for the analysis of steroids, peptides and therapeutic drugs,” Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis, vol. 47, no. 3, pp. 478–486, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. P.-J. Lamey and A. Nolan, “The recovery of human saliva using the Salivette system,” European Journal of Clinical Chemistry and Clinical Biochemistry, vol. 32, no. 9, pp. 727-728, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. L. Henderson, M. Muir, P. R. Mills et al., “Oral health of patients with hepatitis c virus infection: A pilot study,” Oral Diseases, vol. 7, no. 5, pp. 271–275, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. P. Dowling, R. Wormald, P. Meleady, M. Henry, A. Curran, and M. Clynes, “Analysis of the saliva proteome from patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma reveals differences in abundance levels of proteins associated with tumour progression and metastasis,” Journal of Proteomics, vol. 71, no. 2, pp. 168–175, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. Y. Fleissig, O. Deutsch, E. Reichenberg et al., “Different proteomic protein patterns in saliva of Sjögren's syndrome patients,” Oral Diseases, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 61–68, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. G. Peluso, M. De Santis, R. Inzitari et al., “Proteomic study of salivary peptides and proteins in patients with Sjögren's syndrome before and after pilocarpine treatment,” Arthritis & Rheumatology, vol. 56, no. 7, pp. 2216–2222, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. Y. Wu, R. Shu, L.-J. Luo, L.-H. Ge, and Y.-F. Xie, “Initial comparison of proteomic profiles of whole unstimulated saliva obtained from generalized aggressive periodontitis patients and healthy control subjects,” Journal of Periodontal Research, vol. 44, no. 5, pp. 636–644, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. L.-L. Yang, X.-Q. Liu, W. Liu, B. Cheng, and M.-T. Li, “Comparative analysis of whole saliva proteomes for the screening of biomarkers for oral lichen planus,” Inflammation Research, vol. 55, no. 10, pp. 405–407, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. S. Hu, M. Arellano, P. Boontheung et al., “Salivary proteomics for oral cancer biomarker discovery,” Clinical Cancer Research, vol. 14, no. 19, pp. 6246–6252, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. S. Hu, J. Wang, J. Meijer et al., “Salivary proteomic and genomic biomarkers for primary Sjögren's syndrome,” Arthritis & Rheumatology, vol. 56, no. 11, pp. 3588–3600, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. S. Hu and et al., “Discovery of oral fluid biomarkers for human oral cancer by mass spectrometry,” Cancer Genomics-Proteomics, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 55–64, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  35. R. Vitorino, S. De Morais Guedes, R. Ferreira et al., “Two-dimensional electrophoresis study of in vitro pellicle formation and dental caries susceptibility,” European Journal of Oral Sciences, vol. 114, no. 2, pp. 147–153, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. L. Giusti, C. Baldini, L. Bazzich et al., “Proteome analysis of whole saliva: A new tool for rheumatic diseases - The example of Sjögren's syndrome,” Proteomics, vol. 7, no. 10, pp. 1634–1643, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. C. Dawes, “Circadian rhythms in human salivary flow rate and composition,” The Journal of Physiology, vol. 220, no. 3, pp. 529–545, 1972. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. M. Castagnola, R. Inzitari, C. Fanali et al., “The Surprising Composition of the Salivary Proteome of Preterm Human Newborn,” Molecular & Cellular Proteomics, vol. 10, no. 1, p. M110.003467, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  39. C. Hirtz, F. Chevalier, N. Sommerer et al., “Salivary protein profiling in type 1 diabetes using two-dimensional electrophoresis and mass spectrometry,” Clinical Proteomics, vol. 2, no. 1-2, pp. 117–128, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. I. Messana, R. Inzitari, C. Fanali, T. Cabras, and M. Castagnola, “Facts and artifacts in proteomics of body fluids. What proteomics of saliva is telling us?” Journal of Separation Science, vol. 31, no. 11, pp. 1948–1963, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. W. L. Siqueira and C. Dawes, “The salivary proteome: Challenges and perspectives,” Proteomics - Clinical Applications, vol. 5, no. 11-12, pp. 575–579, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. R. Schipper, A. Loof, J. De Groot, L. Harthoorn, W. Van Heerde, and E. Dransfield, “Salivary protein/peptide profiling with SELDI-TOF-MS,” Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, vol. 1098, pp. 498–503, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. B. Ghafouri, C. Tagesson, and M. Lindahl, “Mapping of proteins in human saliva using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and peptide mass fingerprinting,” Proteomics, vol. 3, no. 6, pp. 1003–1015, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. M. Hardt, L. R. Thomas, S. E. Dixon et al., “Toward defining the human parotid gland salivary proteome and peptidome: Identification and characterization using 2D SDS-PAGE, ultrafiltration, HPLC, and mass spectrometry,” Biochemistry, vol. 44, no. 8, pp. 2885–2899, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. S. Hu, P. Denny, P. Denny et al., “Differentially expressed protein markers in human submandibular and sublingual secretions,” International Journal of Oncology, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  46. S. Hu, J. Jiang, and D. T. Wong, “Proteomic Analysis of Saliva: 2D Gel Electrophoresis, LC-MS/MS, and Western Blotting,” in Oral Biology, G. J. Seymour, M. P. Cullinan, and N. C. K. Heng, Eds., vol. 666, pp. 31–41, Humana Press, Totowa, NJ, USA, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  47. C.-M. Huang, “Comparative proteomic analysis of human whole saliva,” Archives of Oral Biolog, vol. 49, no. 12, pp. 951–962, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. N. Huq, A. DeAngelis, Z. Rahim, M. U. J. Lucas, K. Cross, and E. Reynolds, “Whole And Parotid Saliva - Protein Profiles As Separated On 5-20% SDS-Polyacrylamide Gradient gel Electrophoresis And Using Maldi-tof Mass Spectrometry,” Annals of Dentistry, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 24–29, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  49. N. L. Huq, K. J. Cross, M. Ung et al., “A review of the salivary proteome and peptidome and saliva-derived peptide therapeutics,” International Journal of Peptide Research and Therapeutics, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 547–564, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. I. Messana, T. Cabras, R. Inzitari et al., “Characterization of the human salivary basic proline-rich protein complex by a proteomic approach,” Journal of Proteome Research, vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 792–800, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. R. Vitorino, M. J. C. Lobo, A. J. Ferrer-Correira et al., “Identification of human whole saliva protein components using proteomics,” Proteomics, vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 1109–1115, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. Y. Yao, E. A. Berg, C. E. Costello, R. F. Troxler, and F. G. Oppenheim, “Identification of protein components in human acquired enamel pellicle and whole saliva using novel proteomics approaches,” The Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 278, no. 7, pp. 5300–5308, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. M. Castagnola, T. Cabras, F. Iavarone et al., “The human salivary proteome: A critical overview of the results obtained by different proteomic platforms,” Expert Review of Proteomics, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 33–46, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. S. K. Al-Tarawneh and S. Bencharit, “Applications of Surface-Enhanced Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-Of- Flight (SELDI-TOF) Mass Spectrometry in Defining Salivary Proteomic Profiles,” The Open Dentistry Journal, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 74–79, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  55. P. Denny and et al., “The Proteomes of Human Parotid and Submandibular/Sublingual Gland Salivas Collected as the Ductal Secretions,” Journal of Proteome Research, vol. 7, no. 5, pp. 1994–2006, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  56. T. Guo, P. A. Rudnick, W. Wang, C. S. Lee, D. L. Devoe, and B. M. Balgley, “Characterization of the human salivary proteome by capillary isoelectric focusing/nanoreversed-phase liquid chromatography coupled with ESI-tandem MS,” Journal of Proteome Research, vol. 5, no. 6, pp. 1469–1478, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. H. Xie, N. L. Rhodus, R. J. Griffin, J. V. Carlis, and T. J. Griffin, “A catalogue of human saliva proteins identified by free flow electrophoresis-based peptide separation and tandem mass spectrometry,” Molecular & Cellular Proteomics, vol. 4, no. 11, pp. 1826–1830, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. R. G. Schipper, E. Silletti, and M. H. Vingerhoeds, “Saliva as research material: Biochemical, physicochemical and practical aspects,” Archives of Oral Biolog, vol. 52, no. 12, pp. 1114–1135, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. B. Isaksen and M. K. Fagerhol, “Calprotectin inhibits matrix metalloproteinases by sequestration of zinc,” Journal of Clinical Pathology: Molecular Pathology, vol. 54, no. 5, pp. 289–292, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. C. Kerkhoff, M. Klempt, V. Kaever, and C. Sorg, “The two calcium-binding proteins, S100A8 and S100A9, are involved in the metabolism of arachidonic acid in human neutrophils,” The Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 274, no. 46, pp. 32672–32679, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. L. I. Sakkas, “New developments in the pathogenesis of systemic sclerosis,” Autoimmunity, vol. 38, no. 2, pp. 113–116, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. P. Madsen, H. H. Rasmussen, H. Leffers et al., “Molecular cloning, occurrence, and expression of a novel partially secreted protein ‘psoriasis’ that is highly up-regulated in psoriatic skin,” Journal of Investigative Dermatology, vol. 97, no. 4, pp. 701–712, 1991. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. O. D. Weiner, G. Servant, M. D. Welch, T. J. Mitchison, J. W. Sedat, and H. R. Bourne, “Spatial control of actin polymerization during neutrophil chemotaxis,” Nature Cell Biology, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 75–81, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. H. Watanabe, T. Seino, and Y. Sato, “Antibodies to triosephosphate isomerase in patients with neuropsychiatric lupus,” Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, vol. 321, no. 4, pp. 949–953, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. S.-H. Kim, S. M. Lessner, Y. Sakurai, and Z. S. Galis, “Cyclophilin A as a Novel Biphasic Mediator of Endothelial Activation and Dysfunction,” The American Journal of Pathology, vol. 164, no. 5, pp. 1567–1574, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. F. U. Hartl and M. Hayer-Hartl, “Molecular chaperones in the cytosol: from nascent chain to folded protein,” Science, vol. 295, no. 5561, pp. 1852–1858, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. W. L. Siqueira, E. Salih, D. L. Wan, E. J. Helmerhorst, and F. G. Oppenheim, “Proteome of human minor salivary gland secretion,” Journal of Dental Research, vol. 87, no. 5, pp. 445–450, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus