BioMed Research International / 2018 / Article / Tab 2

Clinical Study

Effects of a Short-Term Recreational Team Handball-Based Programme on Physical Fitness and Cardiovascular and Metabolic Health of 33-55-Year-Old Men: A Pilot Study

Table 2

Physical fitness, cardiovascular and metabolic health markers at baseline and after 12 weeks of recreational team handball practice (n = 15; team handball group) or a continuation of an inactive lifestyle (n = 9; control group).

Team handball group (n = 15)Control group (n = 9)Two-way ANOVAp
Baseline12 weeks△ (abs)△ (%)Baseline12 weeks△ (abs)△ (%)Time
(F; p)
Group
(F; p)
Interaction
(F; p)
Time; group; interactionTime; group; interaction

Physical Fitness
 YYIE2
(m)
351±149652±#302±277#79.9±54.3#307±134351±16844±10317.4±37.512.629;3.083;6.973;0.387; 0.134;0.002; 0.094;
0.0020.0940.0160.2590.016
 Postural balance
(n)
16±911±#−6±7#−26.9±40.7#18±1121±153±7.011.6±34.81.012;1.746;6.710;0.056; 0.093;0.329; 0.204;
0.3290.2040.0190.2830.019
 Handgrip strength
(kg)
53.7±8.154.9±7.01.2±4.93.1±10.252.3±9.949.6±7.6−2.8±8.1−3.9±14.40.268;0.931;1.836;0.016; 0.052;0.611; 0.348;
0.6110.348 0.1930.0970.193

Cardiovascular health
 VO2max
(mL/min/kg)
40.1±8.444.8±4.7±4.1#13.5±13.6#38.6±8.739.1±9.00.6±1.71.5±5.210.291;0.867;6.290;0.377; 0.049;0.005; 0.365;
0.0050.3650.0230.2700.023
 Resting heart rate
(bpm)
62±8#52±#−10±7#−15.5±9.5#75±1178±123±84.1±9.95.425;27.581;17.821;0.222; 0.592;0.031; <0.001;
0.031<0.001<0.0010.484<0.001
 Systolic blood pressure
(mmHg)
131±11127±12−4±8−2.8±6.0138±14138±130±150.8±10.50.448;3.274;0.669;0.024; 0.154;0.512; 0.087;
0.5120.0870.4240.0360.424
 Diastolic blood pressure
(mmHg)
75±1071±#−4±5−4.3±6.383±1182±13−1±6−1.6±7.73.466;4.497;0.808;0.161; 0.200;0.079; 0.048;
0.0790.0480.3810.0430.381
 Mean arterial pressure
(mmHg)
93±1090±8#−4±5−3.7±5.3101±12100±12−1±8−0.6±7.62.154;4.448;0.979;0.107; 0.198;0.159; 0.049;
0.1590.0490.3360.0520.336
 Arterial stiffness (PWV)
(m/seg)
10.0±4.28.5±2.7−1.5±3.2−11.1±18.78.2±2.97.9±1.9−0.4±1.1−1.5±13.10.895;0.361;0.319;0.069; 0.029;0.363; 0.559;
0.3630.5590.5820.0260.582

Metabolic health
 Total cholesterol
(mmol/L)
5.6±1.34.9±−0.7±0.9−10.3±15.65.9±0.85.3±−0.6±0.5−10.5±8.515.095;0.694;0.077;0.470; 0.039;0.001; 0.416;
0.0010.4160.7850.0050.785
 HDL cholesterol
(mmol/L)
1.1±0.21.3±0.1±0.1#10.7±11.2#1.2±0.21.2±0.30.0±0.10.6±8.77.324;0.002;4.530;0.301; <0.001;0.015; 0.966;
0.0150.9660.0480.2100.048
 LDL cholesterol
(mmol/L)
3.9±1.23.2±−0.7±0.8−14.2±23.44.2±0.73.5±−0.7±0.5−17.1±12.522.213;0.511;0.016;0.566; 0.029;<0.001; 0.484;
<0.0010.4840.9000.0010.900
 Total cholesterol/HDL ratio4.94±0.923.96±−0.98±0.58−19.3±8.55.08±1.154.62±−0.46±0.48−10.5±10.433.185;0.738;4.241;0.661; 0.042;<0.001; 0.402;
<0.0010.4020.0550.2000.055
 Total cholesterol/LDL ratio1.50±0.261.58±0.160.08±0.156.4±8.61.44±0.091.56±0.13±0.108.8±6.910.698;0.270;0.562;0.386; 0.016;0.005; 0.610;
0.0050.6100.4640.0320.464
 LDL/HDL ratio3.39±0.902.54±−0.86±0.56−23.3±13.33.57±0.963.03±−0.54±0.41−17.2±13.235.892;0.721;1.849;0.679; 0.041;<0.001; 0.408;
<0.0010.4080.1920.0980.192
 Triglycerides
(mmol/L)
1.3±0.51.1±0.7−0.2±0.4−15.3±25.7#1.3±0.71.4±0.80.2±0.415.2±26.50.003;0.259;3.495;<0.001; 0.015;0.960; 0.617;
0.9600.6170.0790.1710.079
 Fasting blood glucose
(mmol/L)
4.7±0.54.4±#−0.3±0.4#−6.6±8.24.9±0.35.0±0.60.1±0.41.1±8.22.016;3.638;4.359;0.106; 0.176;0.174; 0.074;
0.1740.0740.0520.2040.052
 Two-hour OGTT blood glucose (mmol/L)5.6±1.34.5±−1.1±1.4−17.0±20.05.3±1.25.5±1.30.1±1.34.0±26.32.530;0.581;3.847;0.130; 0.033;0.130; 0.456;
0.1300.4560.0660.1850.066
 Fasting plasma insulin
(μmol/L)
15±510±6−5±5−33.6±26.030±2914±−15±25−46.4±24.57.066;2.072;1.813;0.294; 0.109;0.017; 0.168;
0.0170.1680.1960.0960.196
 Two-hour OGTT plasma insulin (μmol/L)139±11044±−95±115−49.9±56.4109±15285±116−24±559.4±95.47.202;0.016;2.526;0.298; 0.001;0.016; 0.902;
0.0160.9020.1300.1290.130

Data is presented as mean ± sd.
Significantly different from baseline (p≤0.05).
Significantly different from the control group (p≤0.05).
YYIE2: Yo-Yo intermittent endurance level 2 test; VO2max: maximal oxygen uptake; PWV: pulse wave velocity; HDL: high-density lipoprotein; LDL: low-density lipoprotein; OGTT: oral glucose tolerance test.

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