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BioMed Research International
Volume 2018 (2018), Article ID 4152543, 8 pages
Research Article

Biomechanical Evaluation of a Novel Apatite-Wollastonite Ceramic Cage Design for Lumbar Interbody Fusion: A Finite Element Model Study

1Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, Harran University School of Medicine, Osmanbey Kampusu, Mardin Yolu 20. Km, Haliliye, 63190 Şanlıurfa, Turkey
2Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, Gazi University School of Medicine, Emniyet Mh Mevlana Bulvarı, Beşevler, 06500 Ankara, Turkey
3Saglık Bakanlıgı Ankara Eğitim ve Arastırma Hastanesi, Sukriye Mh. Ulucanlar Cd. No. 89, Altındag, 06340 Ankara, Turkey
4Department of Metallurgical and Material Engineering, Middle East Technical University, Üniversiteler Eskisehir Yolu No. 1, Cankaya, 06800 Ankara, Turkey

Correspondence should be addressed to Celal Bozkurt

Received 12 August 2017; Revised 13 December 2017; Accepted 20 December 2017; Published 18 January 2018

Academic Editor: Radovan Zdero

Copyright © 2018 Celal Bozkurt et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Objectives. Cage design and material properties play a crucial role in the long-term results, since interbody fusions using intervertebral cages have become one of the basic procedures in spinal surgery. Our aim is to design a novel Apatite-Wollastonite interbody fusion cage and evaluate its biomechanical behavior in silico in a segmental spinal model. Materials and Methods. Mechanical properties for the Apatite-Wollastonite bioceramic cages were obtained by fitting finite element results to the experimental compression behavior of a cage prototype. The prototype was made from hydroxyapatite, pseudowollastonite, and frit by sintering. The elastic modulus of the material was found to be 32 GPa. Three intact lumbar vertebral segments were modelled with the ANSYS 12.0.1 software and this model was modified to simulate a Posterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion. Four cage designs in different geometries were analyzed in silico under axial loading, flexion, extension, and lateral bending. Results. The K2 design had the best overall biomechanical performance for the loads considered. Maximum cage stress recorded was 36.7 MPa in compression after a flexion load, which was within the biomechanical limits of the cage. Conclusion. Biomechanical analyses suggest that K2 bioceramic cage is an optimal design and reveals essential material properties for a stable interbody fusion.