BioMed Research International / 2018 / Article / Tab 2

Review Article

Gut Microbial Changes, Interactions, and Their Implications on Human Lifecycle: An Ageing Perspective

Table 2

Clinical studies related to variations in immunity and gut microbiota in the .

Study details Sample detailsMethodsCFU OutcomeRef

Placebo controlled RCT = 24
(i) Probiotic (L. johnsonii) La1 (NCC533) = 12
(ii) Placebo (nonprobiotic) = 12
ELISA, C-reactive protein test, PHAGOTEST, faecal microbiota enumeration109 CFU/day/12 weeksDaily consumption of L. johnsonii La1 (NCC533) may contribute to suppressing infections by improving nutritional and immunological status[19]

RCT = 209
(i) Probiotic group: B. longum 2C (DSM 14579) = 56,
(ii) DSM 14583 = 46
(iii) Placebo group = 67
(iv) Control group = 86
qPCR, ELISA and faecal microbiota enumeration109 CFU/day/6 monthsBifidobacterium levels in the in microbiota may be associated with change of cytokine levels[20]

Comparative analysis = 84
(i) Adults = 20, age 25 to 40 years;
(ii) Elderly = 22, age 63 to 76 years;
(iii) Centenarians = 21, age 99 to 104 years.
Tract Chip (HITChip), qPCR, 16S rRNA gene sequencing, ELISA and Flow cytometryThe proportion of centenarians showing a high inflammation score was significantly higher than in the other age groups, confirming the inflamm-ageing hypothesis[6]

RCT = 45
(i) B. longum BB536 = 23
(ii) Placebo (Dextrin) = 22
RT-PCR, ELISA, T-RFLPs5 × 1010/day/12 weeksThe potential of long-term ingestion of BB536 in increasing the cell number of bifidobacteria in intestinal microbiota and modulating immune function[21]

Investigative RCT = 33 (Bacillus coagulans GBI-30, 6086 (BC30))FISH, Gas chromatography and Flow cytometry1 × 109/day/28 daysThe dietary inclusion of probiotics such as BC30 may provide a beneficial option for enhancing markers of GI health comparison with placebo[22]

sorted by year of publication; RCT: randomized double-blinded clinical trial.