Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
BioMed Research International
Volume 2018, Article ID 4360305, 14 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/4360305
Research Article

Intergenerational Programs Involving Adolescents, Institutionalized Elderly, and Older Volunteers: Results from a Pilot Research-Action in Italy

1IRCCS INRCA-National Institute of Health and Science on Ageing, Centre for Socio-Economic Research on Ageing, Ancona, Italy
2IRCCS INRCA-National Institute of Health and Science on Ageing, Centre for Welfare Models and New Technologies, Ancona, Italy
3Ca’ Foscari University, Venice, Italy

Correspondence should be addressed to Sara Santini; ti.acrni@2initnas.s

Received 6 August 2018; Revised 8 November 2018; Accepted 27 November 2018; Published 5 December 2018

Academic Editor: Antonella Gigantesco

Copyright © 2018 Sara Santini et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. V. L. Bengtson, “Beyond the nuclear family: The increasing importance of multigenerational bonds,” Journal of Marriage and Family, vol. 63, no. 1, pp. 1–16, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. P. A. Dykstra, Intergenerational family relationship in ageing society, New-York-Ginevra: United Nations Economic Commission for Europe, 2010.
  3. D. Coole and S. Frost, Eds., New materialisms: Ontology, agency, and politics, Duke University Press, Durham, NC, 2010.
  4. C. Schadler, “How to Define Situated and Ever-Transforming Family Configurations? A New Materialist Approach,” Journal of Family Theory and Review, vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 503–514, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. P. A. Dykstra, “Cross-national Differences in Intergenerational Family Relations: The Influence of Public Policy Arrangements,” Innovation in Aging, vol. 2, no. 1, 2018. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  6. L. Drury, P. Hutchison, and D. Abrams, “Direct and extended intergenerational contact and young people's attitudes towards older adults,” British Journal of Social Psychology, vol. 55, pp. 522–543, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  7. L. Drury, D. Abrams, and H. J. Swift, Making intergenerational connections: What are they, why do they matter and how to make more of them, Age UK, London, 2017.
  8. D. Abrams, C. M. Vauclair, and H. Swift, Predictors of attitudes to age across Europe, Department for Work and Pensions (Research Report No 735), 2011, https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/214509/rrep735.pdf.
  9. M. Albertini, M. Kohli, and C. Vogel, “Intergenerational transfers of time and money in European families: Common patterns - Different regimes?” Journal of European Social Policy, vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 319–334, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. Eurostat, Population structure and ageing, 2016, http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/statistics-explained/index.php/Population_structure_and_ageing.
  11. CENSIS & Human Potential Network Research Foundation, Italy of the generational tribes, Milano: Fondazione Censis, 2015.
  12. B. Da Roit, “Changing intergenerational solidarities within families in a mediterranean welfare state: Elderly care in Italy,” Current Sociology, vol. 55, no. 2, pp. 251–269, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. G. Lamura, C. Chiatti, M. Di Rosa et al., “Migrant workers in the long-term care sector: Lessons from Italy,” Health and Ageing, vol. 22, pp. 8–12, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  14. M. Di Rosa, M. G. Melchiorre, M. Lucchetti, and G. Lamura, “The impact of migrant work in the elder care sector: Recent trends and empirical evidence in Italy,” European Journal of Social Work, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 9–27, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. S. Pasquinelli, “Badanti,” in Italy. How many, who are and what they do, S. Pasquinelli and G. Rusmini, Eds., Badare it is not enough, Roma: Ediesse, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  16. ISTAT, Residential care facilities and social-health facilities, Istituto Nazionale di Statistica, Roma, 2013, https://www.istat.it/it/files/2015/12/Presidi-residenziali_2013.pdf?title=Presidi+residenziali+-+17%2Fdic%2F2015+-+Testo+integrale+e+nota+metodologica.pdf.
  17. A. Palese, C. Del Favero, R. Antonio Zuttion et al., “Inactive Residents Living in Nursing Homes and Associated Predictors: Findings From a Regional-Based, Italian Retrospective Study,” Journal of the American Medical Directors Association, vol. 17, no. 12, pp. 1099–1105, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. A. Censi, “Per un circolo virtuoso dellautonomia degli anziani. Le cure e lautonomia nelle residenze per anziani [For a virtuous cicle of the autonomy of older people. The care and the autonomy of older people in residential facilities],” Animazione Sociale, vol. 8, pp. 61–69, 2000. View at Google Scholar
  19. L. Mortari, The practice of taking care, Mondadori, Milano, Italy, 2006.
  20. F. Montemurro, G. Mancini, and F. Torre, Indagine sulle Residenze Socio-Assistenziali in Italia [Survey on the Residential Care Facilities in Italy], 2012, http://www.quotidianosanita.it/allegati/allegato3485654.pdf.
  21. J. M. McCrea and B. T. Smith, “Social Issues addressed by Intergenerational Programs,” in Intergenerational Programs. Past, Present and Future, S. Newman, Ed., Routledge, New York, NY, USA, 2014. View at Google Scholar
  22. M. G. Melchiorre, B. Penhale, and G. Lamura, “Understanding elder abuse in Italy: perception and prevalence, types and risk factors from a review of the literature,” Educational Gerontology, vol. 40, no. 12, pp. 909–931, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. J. MacCallum Dr., D. Palmer Dr., P. Wright Dr., W. Cumming-Potvin Dr., M. Brooker, and C. Tero, “Australian perspectives: Community building through intergenerational exchange programs,” Journal of Intergenerational Relationships, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 113–127, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. S. E. Jarrott, M. M. Morris, A. J. Burnett, D. Stauffer, A. S. Stremmel, and C. M. Gigliotti, “Creating Community Capacity at a Shared Site Intergenerational Program: "Like a Barefoot Climb Up a Mountain",” Journal of Intergenerational Relationships, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 418–434, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. J. Melville, “The Development of an Intergenerational Centre in the UK: How Several Generations Used the Centre and Interacted with(in) the Building,” Studia paedagogica, vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 67–82, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  26. A. L. Park, “The Effects of Intergenerational Programmes on Children and Young People,” International Journal of School and Cognitive Psychology, vol. 2, no. 1, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  27. R. Sakurai, M. Yasunaga, Y. Murayama et al., “Long-term effects of an intergenerational program on functional capacity in older adults: Results from a seven-year follow-up of the REPRINTS study,” Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics, vol. 64, pp. 13–20, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  28. J. Cohen-Mansfield and B. Jensen, “Intergenerational Programs in Schools: Prevalence and Perceptions of Impact,” Journal of Applied Gerontology, vol. 36, no. 3, pp. 254–276, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. P. Roodin, L. H. Brown, and D. Shedlock, “Intergenerational Service-Learning: A Review of Recent Literature and Directions for the Future,” Gerontology and Geriatrics Education, vol. 34, no. 1, pp. 3–25, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. C. D. Fair and E. Delaplane, ““It is Good to Spend Time with Older Adults. You Can Teach Them, They Can Teach You”: Second Grade Students Reflect on Intergenerational Service Learning,” Early Childhood Education Journal, vol. 43, no. 1, pp. 19–26, 2014. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. C. Andreoletti and J. L. Howard, “Bridging the generation gap: benefits young and old,” Gerontology & Geriatric Education, vol. 39, no. 1, pp. 46–60, 2018. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  32. A. June and C. Andreoletti, “Participation in intergenerational service-learning benefits older adults: A brief report,” Gerontology &a geriatrics education, Article ID 1457529, pp. 1–6, 2018. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  33. B. M. Breck, C. B. Dennis, and S. N. Leedahl, “Implementing reverse mentoring to address social isolation among older adults,” Journal of Gerontological Social Work, pp. 1–13, 2018. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. S. N. Leedahl, M. S. Brasher, E. Estus, B. M. Breck, C. B. Dennis, and S. C. Clark, “Implementing an interdisciplinary intergenerational program using the Cyber Seniors® reverse mentoring model within higher education,” Gerontoly & Geriatric Education, vol. 24, pp. 1–19, 2018. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  35. A. Hoff, “Intergenerational Learning as an Adaptation Strategy in Aging Knowledge Societies,” in Education, Employment, Europe, European Commission, Ed., pp. 126–129, National Contact Point for Research Programs of the European Union, Warsaw, Poland, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  36. A. Hatton-Yeo, “Introduction,” in Guide for planning and implementing intergenerational projects. Together, yesterday and tomorrow. Mates project, T. Almeido Pinto, Ed., 2009, http://www.matesproject.eu/GUIDE_21_versions/English.pdf. View at Google Scholar
  37. M. Kaplan, M. Sanchez, and J. Hoffman, “Intergenerational Strategies for Promoting Lifelong Learning and Education,” in Intergenerational Pathways to a Sustainable Society, Perspectives on Sustainable Growth, pp. 87–107, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  38. L. Daloz, “Transformative learning for the common good,” in Learning as transformation. Critical perspectives on a theory in progress, J. Mezirow & Associates, Ed., pp. 103–123, Jossey-Bass, San Francisco, 2000. View at Google Scholar
  39. J. Mezirow, “Learning to think like an adult. Core concepts of transformation theory,” in Learning as transformation. Critical perspectives on a theory in progress, J. Mezirow & Associates, Ed., pp. 3–33, Jossey-Bass, San Francisco, 2000. View at Google Scholar
  40. J. Mezirow, Transformative learning in practice: Insights from community, workplace and education, Jossey-Bass, San Francisco, CA, 2009.
  41. M. M. Lee, C. J. Camp, and M. L. Malone, “Effects of intergenerational Montessori-based activities programming on engagement of nursing home residents with dementia.,” Clinical Interventions in Aging, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 477–483, 2007. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. G. M. J. Biggs and K. S. Knox, “Lessons Learnt from an Intergenerational Volunteer Program: A Case Study of a Shared-Site Model,” Journal of Intergenerational Relationships, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 54–68, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  43. J. R. Baker, L. Webster, N. Lynn, J. Rogers, and J. Belcher, “Intergenerational Programs May Be Especially Engaging for Aged Care Residents with Cognitive Impairment: Findings from the Avondale Intergenerational Design Challenge,” American Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease & Other Dementias, vol. 32, no. 4, pp. 213–221, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. J. Kim and J. Lee, “Intergenerational program for nursing home residents and adolescents in Korea,” Journal of Gerontological Nursing, vol. 44, no. 1, pp. 32–41, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  45. E. Senior and J. Green, “Through the Ages: Developing Relationships Between the Young and the Old,” Journal of Intergenerational Relationships, vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 295–305, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. A. Canedo-García, J. N. García-Sánchez, and D. I. Pacheco-Sanz, “A Systematic Review of the Effectiveness of Intergenerational Programs,” Frontiers in Psychology, vol. 8, p. 1882, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  47. A. P. C. Weintraub and T. S. Killian, “Intergenerational programming: Older persons' perceptions of its impact,” Journal of Applied Gerontology, vol. 26, no. 4, pp. 370–384, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. P. Kleyman, “Life stories: A, nontherapy , for elders and their families,” Aging Today, vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 9–11, 2000. View at Google Scholar
  49. C. L. Alcock, P. M. Camic, C. Barker, C. Haridi, and R. Raven, “Intergenerational practice in the community: A focused ethnographic evaluation,” Journal of Community & Applied Social Psychology, vol. 21, no. 5, pp. 419–432, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. Beth Johnson Foundation, A guide to intergenerational practice, Beth Johnson Foundation, England, 2011.
  51. Y. Murayama, H. Ohba, M. Yasunaga et al., “The effect of intergenerational programs on the mental health of elderly adults,” Aging & Mental Health, vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 306–314, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. E. Erikson, The Life Cycle Completed: A Review, Norton, NY, USA, 1982.
  53. B. Baschiera, “La dimensione formativa e generativa dello scambio intergenerazionale [The formative and generative dimension of intergenerational Exchange],” Studium Educationis, vol. 1, pp. 103–115, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  54. F. Villar and R. Serrat, “A field in search of concepts: The relevance of generativity to understanding intergenerational relationships,” Journal of Intergenerational Relationships, vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 381–397, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  55. B. Teater, “Intergenerational Programs to Promote Active Aging: The Experiences and Perspectives of Older Adults,” Activities, Adaptation & Aging, vol. 40, no. 1, pp. 1–19, 2016. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. A. Bostrom, Lifelong learning and social capital. From theory to practice, Stockholm, Sweden: Institute of International Education, Stockholm University, 2003.
  57. D. S. Meshel and R. P. McGlynn, “Intergenerational contact, attitudes, and stereotypes of adolescents and older people,” Educational Gerontology, vol. 30, no. 6, pp. 457–479, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. E.-M. Kessler and U. M. Staudinger, “Intergenerational Potential: Effects of Social Interaction Between Older Adults and Adolescents,” Psychology and Aging, vol. 22, no. 4, pp. 690–704, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. T. Whitten, N. Vecchio, K. Radford, and J. A. Fitzgerald, “Intergenerational care as a viable intervention strategy for children at risk of delinquency,” Australian Journal of Social Issues, vol. 52, no. 1, pp. 48–62, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. M. Kaplan, J. Wagner, and C. Larson, “Child Care/Senior Adult Care Links: Making them Work,” in NHSA Dialogue, vol. 4, pp. 384–402, National Head Start Association, 2001. View at Google Scholar
  61. B. Baschiera, R. Deluigi, and E. Luppi, Intergenerational education. Perspectives, projects and educational methodologies for boosting intergenerational solidarity, FrancoAngeli, Milano, Italy, 2014.
  62. R. M. Ryan and E. L. Deci, “Self-determination theory and the facilitation of intrinsic motivation, social development, and well-being,” American Psychologist (Salma), vol. 55, no. 1, pp. 68–78, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. S. Kemmis and R. Mctaggart, The Action Research Planner, Geelong, Victoria: Deakin University, 1982.
  64. L. Cohen and L. Manion, “Action Research,” in Conducting Small-Scale Investigations in Educational Management, J. Bell, T. Bush, A. Fox, J. Goodey, and S. Goolding, Eds., Harper Educational, London, 1984. View at Google Scholar
  65. G. Zanniello, “A possible integration between the classic experimentaiton and the research-action,” in The research-action, contributions fro the educational development, C. Scurati and G. Zanniello, Eds., Tecnodid Editrice, Napoli, Italy, 2002. View at Google Scholar
  66. D. R. Shaffer and K. Kipp, Developmental Psychology: Childhood and Adolescence, Cengage Learning, Belmont, CA, 2014.
  67. S. Attar-Schwartz, J.-P. Tan, and A. Buchanan, “Adolescents' perspectives on relationships with grandparents: The contribution of adolescent, grandparent, and parent-grandparent relationship variables,” Children and Youth Services Review, vol. 31, no. 9, pp. 1057–1066, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  68. A. K. Shenton, “Strategies for ensuring trustworthiness in qualitative research projects,” Education for Information, vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 63–75, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. M. Cardano, “La ricerca etnografica [Ethnographic,” in The Qualitative Research, L. Ricolfi, Ed., pp. 45–89, Carocci, Roma, Italy, 1998. View at Google Scholar
  70. S. Reeves, A. Kuper, and B. D. Hodges, “Qualitative research methodologies: ethnography,” BMJ, vol. 337, no. aug07 3, pp. a1020–a1020, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  71. S. E. Jarrott, C. L. Smith, and A. P. C. Weintraub, “Development of a standardized tool for intergenerational programming: The intergenerational observation scale,” Journal of Intergenerational Relationships, vol. 6, no. 4, pp. 433–447, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  72. P. Mayring, “Qualitative content analysis,” Forum: Qualitative Social Research, vol. 1, no. 2, 2000, http://nbnresolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0002204. View at Google Scholar
  73. D. Ebbut, “Educational Action Research: Some general concerns and specific squibbles,” in Issues in EducationalResearch: Qualitative Methods, G. R. Burgess, Ed., The Falmer Press, London, England, 1985. View at Google Scholar
  74. E. R. Martini and E. Ripamonti, “New ways for looking at and thinking elders,” Animazione Sociale, vol. 4, pp. 36–45, 2000. View at Google Scholar
  75. R. Deluigi, Animation for education. How to grow in social engagement, SEI, Torino, Italy, 2010.
  76. I. E. Von Rossberg-Gempton, J. Dickinson, and G. Poole, “Creative dance: Potentiality for enhancing social functioning in frail seniors and young children,” The Arts in Psychotherapy, vol. 26, no. 5, pp. 313–327, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  77. S. Zeldin, A. K. McDaniel, D. Topitzes, and M. Calvert, Youth in decision making: A study on the impacts of youth on adults and organizations, Chevy Chase, MD: Innovation Center for Community and Youth Development, National 4-H Council, 2000.
  78. J. Bruner, The culture of education, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1996.
  79. D. Demetrio, Raccontarsi. L’autobiografia come cura di sé, Raffaello Cortina Editore, Milano, Italy, 1996.
  80. P. Laslett, Una nuova mappa della vita. L’emergere della terza età, Universale Paperbacks, Il Mulino, Bologna, Italy, 1992.
  81. C. Saraceno, Età e corso della vita, Bologna, Italy: Il Mulino, 2001.
  82. K. B. Adams, S. Sanders, and E. A. Auth, “Loneliness and depression in independent living retirement communities: Risk and resilience factors,” Aging & Mental Health, vol. 8, no. 6, pp. 475–485, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  83. L. M. Santiago and I. E. Mattos, “Depressive symptoms in institutionalized older adults,” Revista de Saúde Pública, vol. 48, no. 2, pp. 216–224, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  84. J. Jerez-Roig, N. P. D. de Oliveira, B. F. de Lima Filho et al., “Depressive Symptoms and Associated Factors in Institutionalized Elderly,” Experimental Aging Research, vol. 42, no. 5, pp. 479–491, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  85. H. A. Minardi and M. Blanchard, “Older people with depression: pilot study,” Journal of Advanced Nursing, vol. 46, no. 1, pp. 23–32, 2004. View at Google Scholar
  86. L. Van Malderen, T. Mets, and E. Gorus, “Interventions to enhance the Quality of Life of older people in residential long-term care: A systematic review,” Ageing Research Reviews, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 141–150, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  87. B. Rodríguez-Martín, M. Martínez-Andrés, B. Cervera-Monteagudo, B. Notario-Pacheco, and V. Martínez-Vizcaíno, “Perception of quality of care among residents of public nursing-homes in Spain: A grounded theory study,” BMC Geriatrics, vol. 13, no. 1, 2013. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  88. O. R. Burack, A. S. Weiner, J. P. Reinhardt, and R. A. Annunziato, “What matters most to nursing home elders: Quality of life in the nursing home,” Journal of the American Medical Directors Association, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 48–53, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  89. D. B. Mukamel and C. Harrington, “Resident satisfaction surveys and clinical quality of care in nursing homes: Two sides of the same coin?” Aging Health, vol. 9, no. 6, pp. 607–609, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  90. S. Barsanti, K. Walker, C. Seghieri, A. Rosa, and W. P. Wodchis, “Consistency of priorities for quality improvement for nursing homes in Italy and Canada: A comparison of optimization models of resident satisfaction,” Health Policy, vol. 121, no. 8, pp. 862–869, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus