BioMed Research International / 2018 / Article / Fig 1

Review Article

A Brief Review on the Neuroprotective Mechanisms of Vitexin

Figure 1

The neurotoxicity induced by the presence of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species and toxic oligomers occurs in a positive feedback process and is associated with an exacerbated inflammatory response, glutamate excitotoxicity, mitochondrial dysfunction, and abnormalities in the ubiquitin-autophagic proteasome system. These events promote the release of calcium and cytochrome c by mitochondria and activate the apoptotic signaling pathways that result in cell death and neurotoxicity. In addition to normal aging, factors such as genetic and environmental changes are the main triggers of neurodegeneration.

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