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BioMed Research International
Volume 2018 (2018), Article ID 5353242, 10 pages
Research Article

Relationship between Joint Position Sense, Force Sense, and Muscle Strength and the Impact of Gymnastic Training on Proprioception

1Department of Anatomy and Biomechanics, Institute of Physical Education, Kazimierz Wielki University in Bydgoszcz, Sportowa 2, 85-091 Bydgoszcz, Poland
2Department of Gymnastics and Dance, Gdansk University of Physical Education and Sport, Kazimierza Górskiego 1, 80-336 Gdańsk, Poland
3Department of Pathobiochemistry and Clinical Chemistry, Nicolaus Copernicus University Collegium Medicum, M. Curie Skłodowskiej 9, 85-094 Bydgoszcz, Poland
4Department of Life Sciences, Faculty of Physical Education, Gdansk University of Physical Education and Sport, Kazimierza Górskiego 1, 80-336 Gdańsk, Poland

Correspondence should be addressed to Bartłomiej Niespodziński

Received 31 August 2017; Revised 9 January 2018; Accepted 18 January 2018; Published 18 February 2018

Academic Editor: Emmanuel G. Ciolac

Copyright © 2018 Bartłomiej Niespodziński et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


The aims of this study were (1) to assess the relationship between joint position (JPS) and force sense (FS) and muscle strength (MS) and (2) to evaluate the impact of long-term gymnastic training on particular proprioception aspects and their correlations. 17 elite adult gymnasts and 24 untrained, matched controls performed an active reproduction (AR) and passive reproduction (PR) task and a force reproduction (FR) task at the elbow joint. Intergroup differences and the relationship between JPS, FS, and MS were evaluated. While there was no difference in AR or PR between groups, absolute error in the control group was higher during the PR task (7.15 ± 2.72°) than during the AR task (3.1 ± 1.93°). Mean relative error in the control group was 61% higher in the elbow extensors than in the elbow flexors during 50% FR, while the gymnast group had similar results in both reciprocal muscles. There was no linear correlation between JPS and FS in either group; however, FR was negatively correlated with antagonist MS. In conclusion, this study found no evidence for a relationship between the accuracy of FS and JPS at the elbow joint. Long-term gymnastic training improves the JPS and FS of the elbow extensors.