Caffeine Sensitizes U87-MG Human Glioblastoma Cells to Temozolomide through Mitotic Catastrophe by Impeding G2 Arrest
Representative immunofluorescent images illustrating characteristic micronucleation and multiple spindle poles during MC occurrence (a). Proportion of cells showing MC features increased after TMZ treatment, which could be enhanced by concurrent exploitation of caffeine. Pretreatment of caffeine only exerted additional effect when it was followed by combined treatment but not TMZ alone. , #, and & represent for p < 0.05 when compared to control, TMZ, and TC, respectively (b). While combination of caffeine augmented TMZ-induced caspase-3 cleavage, early exposure of caffeine only produced additional benefits to TMZ but not combined treatment. , #, and & represent for p < 0.05 when compared to control, TMZ, and CT, respectively (c, d).