Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
BioMed Research International
Volume 2018, Article ID 5407256, 11 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/5407256
Research Article

Electric Stimulation of Ear Reduces the Effect of Toll-Like Receptor 4 Signaling Pathway on Kainic Acid-Induced Epileptic Seizures in Rats

1Graduate Institute of Chinese Medicine, College of Chinese Medicine, China Medical University, Taichung 40402, Taiwan
2Graduate Institute of Acupuncture Science, College of Chinese Medicine, China Medical University, Taichung 40402, Taiwan
3Research Center for Chinese Medicine and Acupuncture, China Medical University, Taichung 40402, Taiwan
4School of Chinese Medicine, College of Chinese Medicine, China Medical University, Taichung 40402, Taiwan
5Graduate Institute of Integrated Medicine, College of Chinese Medicine, China Medical University, Taichung 40402, Taiwan
6Department of Chinese Medicine, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung 40447, Taiwan

Correspondence should be addressed to Ching-Liang Hsieh; wt.gro.humc.liam@heishlc

Received 19 October 2017; Revised 10 January 2018; Accepted 18 January 2018; Published 26 February 2018

Academic Editor: Eiichi Kumamoto

Copyright © 2018 En-Tzu Liao et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. R. Moavero, M. E. Santarone, C. Galasso, and P. Curatolo, “Cognitive and behavioral effects of new antiepileptic drugs in pediatric epilepsy,” Brain & Development, vol. 39, no. 6, pp. 464–469, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. L. Lagae, “The importance of assessing behaviour and cognition in antiepileptic drug trials in children and adolescents,” Acta Neurologica Belgica, vol. 117, no. 2, pp. 425–432, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. E.-T. Liao, N.-Y. Tang, Y.-W. Lin, and C. Liang Hsieh, “Long-term electrical stimulation at ear and electro-acupuncture at ST36-ST37 attenuated COX-2 in the CA1 of hippocampus in kainic acid-induced epileptic seizure rats,” Scientific Reports, vol. 7, no. 1, article no. 472, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. N. D. Schartz, S. A. Herr, L. Madsen et al., “Spatiotemporal profile of Map2 and microglial changes in the hippocampal CA1 region following pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus,” Scientific Reports, vol. 6, no. 1, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  5. H. Yoshida, M. Nishikawa, S. Yasuda et al., “Fibronectin inhibits cytokine production induced by CpG DNA in macrophages without direct binding to DNA,” Cytokine, vol. 60, no. 1, pp. 162–170, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. A. Gross, F. Benninger, R. Madar et al., “Toll-like receptor 3 deficiency decreases epileptogenesis in a pilocarpine model of SE-induced epilepsy in mice,” Epilepsia, vol. 58, no. 4, pp. 586–596, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. V. Iori, A. M. Iyer, T. Ravizza et al., “Blockade of the IL-1R1/TLR4 pathway mediates disease-modification therapeutic effects in a model of acquired epilepsy,” Neurobiology of Disease, vol. 99, pp. 12–23, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. M. Maroso, S. Balosso, T. Ravizza et al., “Toll-like receptor 4 and high-mobility group box-1 are involved in ictogenesis and can be targeted to reduce seizures,” Nature Medicine, vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 413–419, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. E. Zurolo, A. Iyer, M. Maroso et al., “Activation of toll-like receptor, RAGE and HMGB1 signalling in malformations of cortical development,” Brain, vol. 134, no. 4, pp. 1015–1032, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. C. Li, Y. Yu, W. Li et al., “Phycocyanin attenuates pulmonary fibrosis via the TLR2-MyD88-NF-κB signaling pathway,” Scientific Reports, vol. 7, no. 1, article no. 5843, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. X. Feng, Y. Peng, M. Liu, and L. Cui, “Dl-3-n-butylphthalide extends survival by attenuating glial activation in a mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis,” Neuropharmacology, vol. 62, no. 2, pp. 1004–1010, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. H. Gao, X. Liu, W. Sun et al., “Total tanshinones exhibits anti-inflammatory effects through blocking TLR4 dimerization via the MyD88 pathway,” Cell Death & Disease, vol. 8, no. 8, p. e3004, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  13. T. B. Nielsen, P. Pantapalangkoor, J. Yan et al., “Diabetes exacerbates infection via hyperinflammation by signaling through TLR4 and RAGE,” mBio, vol. 8, no. 4, Article ID e00818-17, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. X. Chen, S. Wu, C. Chen et al., “Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation attenuates microglial-induced inflammation by inhibiting the HMGB1/TLR4/NF-ΚB pathway following experimental traumatic brain injury,” Journal of Neuroinflammation, vol. 14, no. 1, article no. 143, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. A. Das, S. Arifuzzaman, T. Yoon et al., “RNA sequencing reveals resistance of TLR4 ligand-activated microglial cells to inflammation mediated by the selective jumonji H3K27 demethylase inhibitor,” Scientific Reports, vol. 7, no. 1, article no. 6554, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. C.-T. Kuo, Y.-W. Lin, N.-Y. Tang, C.-Y. Cheng, and C.-L. Hsieh, “Electric stimulation of the ears ameliorated learning and memory impairment in rats with cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury,” Scientific Reports, vol. 6, Article ID 20381, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. M. Choowanthanapakorn, K.-W. Lu, J. Yang, C.-L. Hsieh, and Y.-W. Lin, “Targeting TRPV1 for Body Weight Control using TRPV1-/-Mice and Electroacupuncture,” Scientific Reports, vol. 5, Article ID 17366, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. K.-W. Lu, J. Yang, C.-L. Hsieh, Y.-C. Hsu, and Y.-W. Lin, “Electroacupuncture restores spatial learning and downregulates phosphorylated N-methyl-Daspartate receptors in a mouse model of Parkinson's disease,” Acupuncture in Medicine, vol. 35, no. 2, pp. 133–141, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. R.-Z. Kou, H. Chen, M.-L. Yu, T.-C. Xu, S.-P. Fu, and S.-F. Lu, “Acupuncture for behavioral changes of experimental depressive disorder: A systematic review and meta-analysis,” Scientific Reports, vol. 7, no. 1, article no. 9669, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. H.-Y. Liao, C.-L. Hsieh, C.-P. Huang, and Y.-W. Lin, “Electroacupuncture Attenuates CFA-induced Inflammatory Pain by suppressing Nav1.8 through S100B, TRPV1, Opioid, and Adenosine Pathways in Mice,” Scientific Reports, vol. 7, Article ID 42531, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. K.-W. Lu, C.-L. Hsieh, J. Yang, and Y.-W. Lin, “Effects of electroacupuncture in a mouse model of fibromyalgia: role of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors and related mechanisms,” Acupuncture in Medicine, vol. 35, no. 1, pp. 59–68, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. J. S. Han, “Acupuncture: neuropeptide release produced by electrical stimulation of different frequencies,” Trends in Neurosciences, vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 17–22, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. R. Zhang, L. Lao, K. Ren, and B. M. Berman, “Mechanisms of acupuncture-electroacupuncture on persistent pain,” Anesthesiology, vol. 120, no. 2, pp. 482–503, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. N. Goldman, M. Chen, T. Fujita et al., “Adenosine A1 receptors mediate local anti-nociceptive effects of acupuncture,” Nature Neuroscience, vol. 13, no. 7, pp. 883–888, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. A. Vezzani, E. Aronica, A. Mazarati, and Q. J. Pittman, “Epilepsy and brain inflammation,” Experimental Neurology, vol. 244, pp. 11–21, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. M.-Y. Song, F.-F. Tian, H. Liu et al., “Expression of SOCSs and TLRs in the hippocampus of pentylenetetrazole kindling model,” Clinical Laboratory, vol. 60, no. 2, pp. 233–240, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. G. Luan, Q. Gao, F. Zhai, Y. Chen, and T. Li, “Upregulation of HMGB1, toll-like receptor and RAGE in human Rasmussen's encephalitis,” Epilepsy Research, vol. 123, pp. 36–49, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. J.-S. Medel-Matus, A. Reynolds, D. Shin, R. Sankar, and A. Mazarati, “Regulation of kindling epileptogenesis by hippocampal Toll-like receptors 2,” Epilepsia, vol. 58, no. 8, pp. e122–e126, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. Y. Li, A. A. Korgaonkar, B. Swietek et al., “Toll-like receptor 4 enhancement of non-NMDA synaptic currents increases dentate excitability after brain injury,” Neurobiology of Disease, vol. 74, no. 22, pp. 240–253, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. J. Q. Fang, J. F. Fang, Y. Liang, and J. Y. Du, “Electroacupuncture mediates extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 pathways in the spinal cord of rats with inflammatory pain,” BMC Complementary & Alternative Medicine, vol. 14, no. 1, article 285, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  31. Y. Wang, D. Hackel, F. Peng, and H. L. Rittner, “Long-term antinociception by electroacupuncture is mediated via peripheral opioid receptors in free-moving rats with inflammatory hyperalgesia,” European Journal of Pain, vol. 17, no. 10, pp. 1447–1457, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. I. Vetter, D. Kapitzke, S. Hermanussen, G. R. Monteith, and P. J. Cabot, “The Effects of pH on Beta-Endorphin and Morphine Inhibition of Calcium Transients in Dorsal Root Ganglion Neurons,” The Journal of Pain, vol. 7, no. 7, pp. 488–499, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. N. P. Turrin and S. Rivest, “Innate immune reaction in response to seizures: implications for the neuropathology associated with epilepsy,” Neurobiology of Disease, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 321–334, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. G. Lachuriya, R. K. Garg, A. Jain et al., “Toll-like Receptor-4 Polymorphisms and Serum Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 in Newly Diagnosed Patients with Calcified Neurocysticercosis and Seizures,” Medicine (United States), vol. 95, no. 17, Article ID e3288, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. W. He, X.-H. Jing, B. Zhu et al., “The auriculo-vagal afferent pathway and its role in seizure suppression in rats,” BMC Neuroscience, vol. 14, article 85, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. W. He, P.-J. Rong, L. Li, H. Ben, B. Zhu, and G. Litscher, “Auricular acupuncture may suppress epileptic seizures via activating the parasympathetic nervous system: A hypothesis based on innovative methods,” Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 2012, Article ID 615476, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. A. C. Vivas, C. J. Reitano, H. Waseem, S. R. Benbadis, and F. L. Vale, “An analysis of quality of life (QOL) in patients with epilepsy and comorbid psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES) after vagus nerve stimulation (VNS),” Epilepsy & Behavior, vol. 73, pp. 208–213, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. H. Liu, Z. Yang, L. Huang, W. Qu, H. Hao, and L. Li, “Heart-rate variability indices as predictors of the response to vagus nerve stimulation in patients with drug-resistant epilepsy,” Epilepsia, vol. 58, no. 6, pp. 1015–1022, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. Y. W. Lin and C. L. Hsieh, “Auricular electroacupuncture reduced inflammation-related epilepsy accompanied by altered TRPA1, pPKCα, pPKCε, and pERk1/2 signaling pathways in kainic acid-treated rats,” Mediators of Inflammation, vol. 2014, Article ID 493480, 9 pages, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  40. Y. Li, Z. Peng, B. Xiao, and C. R. Houser, “Activation of ERK by spontaneous seizures in neural progenitors of the dentate gyrus in a mouse model of epilepsy,” Experimental Neurology, vol. 224, no. 1, pp. 133–145, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. B. Gyorffy, Z. Kovacs, P. Gulyassy et al., “Brain protein expression changes in WAG/Rij rats, a genetic rat model of absence epilepsy after peripheral lipopolysaccharide treatment,” Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, vol. 35, pp. 86–95, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus