Figure 4: Effects of combined treatment with MMS and silibinin on gene expression relative to MMS alone. Positive control: methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) (800 µM). Negative control: 100 µL of dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) + sterile distilled water (1:1). Expression values greater than one indicate upregulation, while expression values less than one indicate downregulation in the test sample relative to the positive control. P < 0.05 versus MMS.