Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
BioMed Research International
Volume 2018, Article ID 6074808, 12 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/6074808
Review Article

Current Strategies of Endocrine Therapy in Elderly Patients with Breast Cancer

Division of Oncology/Hematology, Department of Internal Medicine, College of Medicine, Korea University, 148 Gurodong-ro, Guro-gu, Seoul 08308, Republic of Korea

Correspondence should be addressed to Jae Hong Seo; rk.ca.aerok@recnac

Received 25 August 2017; Accepted 19 December 2017; Published 17 January 2018

Academic Editor: Sebastià Sabater

Copyright © 2018 Suk-young Lee and Jae Hong Seo. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. C. E. DeSantis, S. A. Fedewa, A. G. Sauer, J. L. Kramer, R. A. Smith, and A. Jemal, “Breast cancer statistics, 2015: convergence of incidence rates between black and white women,” CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians, vol. 66, no. 1, pp. 31–42, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. R. L. Siegel, K. D. Miller, and A. Jemal, “Cancer statistics,” Cancer Journal for Clinicians, vol. 67, pp. 7–30, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  3. R. Yancik, “Cancer burden in the aged: an epidemiologic and demographic overview,” Cancer, vol. 80, no. 7, pp. 1273–1283, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. D. A. Berry, K. A. Cronin, S. K. Plevritis et al., “Effect of screening and adjuvant therapy on mortality from breast cancer,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 353, no. 17, pp. 1784–1792, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. L. Cataliotti, A. U. Buzdar, S. Noguchi et al., “Comparison of anastrozole versus tamoxifen as preoperative therapy in postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer: the Pre-Operative "Arimidex" Compared to Tamoxifen (PROACT) trial,” Cancer, vol. 106, no. 10, pp. 2095–2103, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. I. E. Smith, M. Dowsett, S. R. Ebbs et al., “Neoadjuvant treatment of postmenopausal breast cancer with anastrozole, tamoxifen, or both in combination: the Immediate Preoperative Anastrozole, Tamoxifen, or Combined With Tamoxifen (IMPACT) multicenter double-blind randomized trial,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 23, no. 22, pp. 5108–5116, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. M. J. Ellis, V. J. Suman, J. Hoog et al., “Randomized phase II neoadjuvant comparison between letrozole, anastrozole, and exemestane for postmenopausal women with estrogen receptor-rich stage 2 to 3 breast cancer: clinical and biomarker outcomes and predictive value of the baseline PAM50-based intrinsic subtype—ACOSOG Z1031,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 29, no. 17, pp. 2342–2349, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. W. Eiermann, S. Paepke, J. Appfelstaedt et al., “Preoperative treatment of postmenopausal breast cancer patients with letrozole: a randomized double-blind multicenter study,” Annals of Oncology, vol. 12, no. 11, pp. 1527–1532, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. V. F. Semiglazov, V. V. Semiglazov, G. A. Dashyan et al., “Phase 2 randomized trial of primary endocrine therapy versus chemotherapy in postmenopausal patients with estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer,” Cancer, vol. 110, no. 2, pp. 244–254, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. E. Alba, L. Calvo, J. Albanell et al., “Chemotherapy (CT) and hormonotherapy (HT) as neoadjuvant treatment in luminal breast cancer patients: results from the GEICAM/2006-03, a multicenter, randomized, phase-II study,” Annals of Oncology, vol. 23, no. 12, Article ID mds132, pp. 3069–3074, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. J. Cuzick, I. Sestak, M. Baum et al., “Effect of anastrozole and tamoxifen as adjuvant treatment for early-stage breast cancer: 10-year analysis of the ATAC trial,” The Lancet Oncology, vol. 11, no. 12, pp. 1135–1141, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. Group BIGC, H. Mouridsen, A. Giobbie-Hurder et al., “Letrozole therapy alone or in sequence with tamoxifen in women with breast cancer,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 361, no. 8, pp. 766–776, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. P. E. Goss, J. N. Ingle, S. Martino et al., “Randomized trial of letrozole following tamoxifen as extended adjuvant therapy in receptor-positive breast cancer: updated findings from NCIC CTG MA.17,” Journal of the National Cancer Institute, vol. 97, no. 17, pp. 1262–1271, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. J. Bonneterre, B. Thürlimann, J. F. R. Robertson et al., “Anastrozole versus tamoxifen as first-line therapy for advanced breast cancer in 668 postmenopausal women: results of the tamoxifen or arimidex randomized group efficacy and tolerability study,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 18, no. 22, pp. 3748–3757, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. J. M. Nabholtz, A. Buzdar, M. Pollak et al., “Anastrozole is superior to tamoxifen as first-line therapy for advanced breast cancer in postmenopausal women: results of a North American multicenter randomized trial,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 18, no. 22, pp. 3758–3767, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. R. J. Paridaens, L. Y. Dirix, L. V. Beex et al., “Phase III study comparing exemestane with tamoxifen as first-line hormonal treatment of metastatic breast cancer in postmenopausal women: the european organisation for research and treatment of cancer breast cancer cooperative group,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 26, no. 30, pp. 4883–4890, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. H. Mouridsen, M. Gershanovich, Y. Sun et al., “Phase III study of letrozole versus tamoxifen as first-line therapy of advanced breast cancer in postmenopausal women: analysis of survival and update of efficacy from the International Letrozole Breast Cancer Group,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 21, no. 11, pp. 2101–2109, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. R. S. Finn, J. P. Crown, I. Lang et al., “The cyclin-dependent kinase 4/6 inhibitor palbociclib in combination with letrozole versus letrozole alone as first-line treatment of oestrogen receptor-positive, HER2-negative, advanced breast cancer (PALOMA-1/TRIO-18): a randomised phase 2 study,” The Lancet Oncology, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 25–35, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. J. F. R. Robertson, A. Llombart-Cussac, J. Rolski et al., “Activity of fulvestrant 500 mg versus anastrozole 1 mg as first-line treatment for advanced breast cancer: Results from the FIRST study,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 27, no. 27, pp. 4530–4535, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. J. Baselga, M. Campone, M. Piccart et al., “Everolimus in postmenopausal hormone-receptor-positive advanced breast cancer,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 366, no. 6, pp. 520–529, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. N. C. Turner, J. Ro, F. André et al., “Palbociclib in hormone-receptor–positive advanced breast cancer,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 373, no. 3, pp. 209–219, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  22. H. G. Welch, P. C. Albertsen, R. F. Nease, T. A. Bubolz, and J. H. Wasson, “Estimating treatment benefits for the elderly: the effect of competing risks,” Annals of Internal Medicine, vol. 124, no. 6, pp. 577–584, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. S. M. Lichtman, “Chemotherapy in the Elderly,” Seminars in Oncology, vol. 31, no. 2, pp. 160–174, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. C. Schairer, P. J. Mink, L. Carroll, and S. S. Devesa, “Probabilities of death from breast cancer and other causes among female breast cancer patients,” Journal of the National Cancer Institute, vol. 96, no. 17, pp. 1311–1321, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. L. H. Land, S. O. Dalton, M.-B. Jensen, and M. Ewertz, “Influence of comorbidity on the effect of adjuvant treatment and age in patients with early-stage breast cancer,” British Journal of Cancer, vol. 107, no. 11, pp. 1901–1907, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. L. Decoster, K. Van Puyvelde, S. Mohile et al., “Screening tools for multidimensional health problems warranting a geriatric assessment in older cancer patients: an update on SIOG recommendations,” Annals of Oncology, vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 288–300, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. N. V. Walde, R. Jagsi, E. Dotan et al., “Nccn guidelines (r) insights older adult oncology, version 2.2016 featured updates to the nccn guidelines,” Journal of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network, vol. 14, no. 11, pp. 1357–1370, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. K. M. Clough-Gorr, S. S. Thwin, A. E. Stuck, and R. A. Silliman, “Examining five- and ten-year survival in older women with breast cancer using cancer-specific geriatric assessment,” European Journal of Cancer, vol. 48, no. 6, pp. 805–812, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. P. Soubeyran, M. Fonck, C. Blanc-Bisson et al., “Predictors of early death risk in older patients treated with first-line chemotherapy for cancer,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 30, no. 15, pp. 1829–1834, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. P. Tesarova, “Specific aspects of breast cancer therapy of elderly women,” BioMed Research International, vol. 2016, Article ID 1381695, 8 pages, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. C. J. Fisher, M. K. Egan, P. Smith, K. Wicks, R. R. Millis, and I. S. Fentiman, “Histopathology of breast cancer in relation to age,” British Journal of Cancer, vol. 75, no. 4, pp. 593–596, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. B. M. Syed, A. R. Green, E. C. Paish et al., “Biology of primary breast cancer in older women treated by surgery: with correlation with long-term clinical outcome and comparison with their younger counterparts,” British Journal of Cancer, vol. 108, no. 5, pp. 1042–1051, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. S. G. Diab, R. M. Elledge, and G. M. Clark, “Tumor characteristics and clinical outcome of elderly women with breast cancer,” Journal of the National Cancer Institute, vol. 92, no. 7, pp. 550–556, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. I. M. Poltinnikov, S. B. Rudoler, Y. Tymofyeyev, J. Kennedy, P. R. Anne, and W. J. Curran Jr., “Impact of Her-2 Neu overexpression on outcome of elderly women treated with wide local excision and breast irradiation for early stage breast cancer: an exploratory analysis,” American Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 71–79, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. C. Owusu, T. L. Lash, and R. A. Silliman, “Effectiveness of adjuvant tamoxifen therapy among older women with early stage breast cancer,” The Breast Journal, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 374–382, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. J. Leone, B. A. Leone, and J. P. Leone, “Adjuvant systemic therapy in older women with breast cancer,” Breast Cancer : Targets and Therapy, vol. 8, pp. 141–147, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. R. Singh, S. Hellman, and R. Heimann, “The natural history of breast carcinoma in the elderly: implications for screening and treatment,” Cancer, vol. 100, no. 9, pp. 1807–1813, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. P. Olmi, C. Fallai, A. M. Cerrotta, L. Lozza, and D. Badii, “Breast cancer in the elderly: the role of adjuvant radiation therapy,” Critical Review in Oncology/Hematology, vol. 48, no. 2, pp. 165–178, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. A. Molino, M. Giovannini, A. Auriemma et al., “Pathological, biological and clinical characteristics, and surgical management, of elderly women with breast cancer,” Critical Review in Oncology/Hematology, vol. 59, no. 3, pp. 226–233, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. F.-I. D. Dimitrakopoulos, A. Kottorou, A. G. Antonacopoulou, T. Makatsoris, and H. P. Kalofonos, “Early-stage breast cancer in the elderly: confronting an old clinical problem,” Journal of Breast Cancer, vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 207–217, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. R. J. Santen and H. A. Harvey, “Use of aromatase inhibitors in breast carcinoma,” Endocrine-Related Cancer, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 75–92, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. I. E. Smith and M. Dowsett, “Aromatase inhibitors in breast cancer,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 348, no. 24, pp. 2431–2442, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. R. Kudachadkar and R. M. O'Regan, “Aromatase inhibitors as adjuvant therapy for postmenopausal patients with early stage breast cancer,” CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians, vol. 55, no. 3, pp. 145–163, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  44. M. Baum, A. U. Buzdar, J. Cuzick et al., “Anastrozole alone or in combination with tamoxifen versus tamoxifen alone for adjuvant treatment of postmenopausal women with early breast cancer: first results of the ATAC randomised trial,” The Lancet, vol. 359, no. 9324, pp. 2131–2139, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. A. Howell, J. Cuzick, M. Baum, A. Buzdar, M. Dowsett, J. F. Forbes et al., “Results of the atac (arimidex, tamoxifen, alone or in combination) trial after completion of 5 years' adjuvant treatment for breast cancer,” The Lancet, vol. 365, no. 9453, pp. 60–62, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  46. Breast International Group 1-98 Collaborative G, B. Thürlimann, A. Keshaviah et al., “A comparison of letrozole and tamoxifen in postmenopausal women with early breast cancer,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 353, no. 26, pp. 2747–2757, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. H. B. Muss, D. Tu, J. N. Ingle et al., “Efficacy, toxicity, and quality of life in older women with early-stage breast cancer treated with letrozole or placebo after 5 years of tamoxifen: NCIC CTG intergroup trial MA.17,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 26, no. 12, pp. 1956–1964, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. Early Breast Cancer Trialists' Collaborative G, “Aromatase inhibitors versus tamoxifen in early breast cancer: patient-level meta-analysis of the randomised trials,” The Lancet, vol. 386, no. 10001, pp. 1341–1352, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  49. M. Dowsett, J. Cuzick, J. Ingle et al., “Meta-analysis of breast cancer outcomes in adjuvant trials of aromatase inhibitors versus tamoxifen,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 28, no. 3, pp. 509–518, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. I. Vergote, J. Bonneterre, B. Thürlimann et al., “Randomised study of anastrozole versus tamoxifen as first-line therapy for advanced breast cancer in postmenopausal women,” European Journal of Cancer, vol. 36, no. 4, pp. S84–S85, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. H. Mouridsen and H. A. Chaudri-Ross, “Efficacy of first-line letrozole versus tamoxifen as a function of age in postmenopausal women with advanced breast cancer,” The Oncologist, vol. 9, no. 5, pp. 497–506, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. A. Ho and S. F. Dowdy, “Regulation of G1 cell-cycle progression by oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes,” Current Opinion in Genetics & Development, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 47–52, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. N. Arber, Y. Doki, E. K.-H. Han et al., “Antisense to cyclin D1 inhibits the growth and tumorigenicity of human colon cancer cells,” Cancer Research, vol. 57, no. 8, pp. 1569–1574, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. E. R. Sauter, M. Nesbit, S. Litwin, A. J. P. Klein-Szanto, S. Cheffetz, and M. Herlyn, “Antisense cyclin D1 induces apoptosis and tumor shrinkage in human squamous carcinomas,” Cancer Research, vol. 59, no. 19, pp. 4876–4881, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. R. S. Finn, J. Dering, D. Conklin et al., “PD 0332991, a selective cyclin D kinase 4/6 inhibitor, preferentially inhibits proliferation of luminal estrogen receptor-positive human breast cancer cell lines in vitro,” Breast Cancer Research, vol. 11, no. 5, article no. R77, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. R. S. Finn, S. A. Hurvitz, M. A. Allison, S. Applebaum, and J. Glaspy, “Phase i study of pd 0332991, a novel, oral, cyclin-d kinase (cdk) 4/6 inhibitor in combination with letrozole, for first-line treatment of metastatic post-menopausal, estrogen receptor-positive (er plus ), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (her2)-negative breast cancer,” Cancer Research, vol. 69, p. 788, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  57. A. E. Wakeling, M. Dukes, and J. Bowler, “A potent specific pure antiestrogen with clinical potential,” Cancer Research, vol. 51, no. 15, pp. 3867–3873, 1991. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. J. F. R. Robertson, J. P. O. Lindemann, A. Llombart-Cussac et al., “Fulvestrant 500 mg versus anastrozole 1 mg for the first-line treatment of advanced breast cancer: Follow-up analysis from the randomized 'FIRST' study,” Breast Cancer Research and Treatment, vol. 136, no. 2, pp. 503–511, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. M. J. Ellis, A. Llombart-Cussac, D. Feltl et al., “Fulvestrant 500 mg versus anastrozole 1 mg for the first-line treatment of advanced breast cancer: overall survival analysis from the phase II first study,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 33, no. 32, pp. 3781–3786, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. H. J. Burstein, “Novel agents and future directions for refractory breast cancer,” Seminars in Oncology, vol. 38, supplement 2, pp. 17–24, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. S. R. D. Johnston, C. Arteaga, E. Winer, M. Dowsett, R. Kumar, and S. Come, “Clinical efforts to combine endocrine agents with targeted therapies against epidermal growth factor receptor/human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 and mammalian target of rapamycin in breast cancer,” Clinical Cancer Research, vol. 12, no. 3, part 2, pp. 1061s–1068s, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. R. Schiff, S. A. Massarweh, J. Shou et al., “Cross-talk between estrogen receptor and growth factor pathways as a molecular target for overcoming endocrine resistance,” Clinical Cancer Research, vol. 10, no. 1, part 2, pp. 331S–336S, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. D. A. Yardley, S. Noguchi, K. I. Pritchard et al., “Everolimus plus exemestane in postmenopausal patients with HR+ breast cancer: BOLERO-2 final progression-free survival analysis,” Advances in Therapy, vol. 30, no. 10, pp. 870–884, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. K. I. Pritchard, H. A. Burris III, Y. Ito et al., “Safety and efficacy of everolimus with exemestane vs. Exemestane alone in elderly patients with HER2-negative, hormone receptor-positive breast cancer in BOLERO-2,” Clinical Breast Cancer, vol. 13, no. 6, pp. 421–432, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. R. C. Coombes, E. Hall, and L. J. Gibson, “A randomized trial of exemestane after two to three years of tamoxifen therapy in postmenopausal women with primary breast cancer,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 350, no. 11, pp. 1081–1092, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  66. R. R. Love, R. B. Mazess, H. S. Barden et al., “Effects of tamoxifen on bone mineral density in postmenopausal women with breast cancer,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 326, pp. 852–856, 1992. View at Google Scholar
  67. J. M. Neuner, T. W. Yen, R. A. Sparapani, P. W. Laud, and A. B. Nattinger, “Fracture risk and adjuvant hormonal therapy among a population-based cohort of older female breast cancer patients,” Osteoporosis International, vol. 22, no. 11, pp. 2847–2855, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  68. T. Becker, L. Lipscombe, S. Narod, C. Simmons, G. M. Anderson, and P. A. Rochon, “Systematic review of bone health in older women treated with aromatase inhibitors for early-stage breast cancer,” Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, vol. 60, no. 9, pp. 1761–1767, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. P. Hadji, M. S. Aapro, J. J. Body et al., “Management of aromatase inhibitor-associated bone loss in postmenopausal women with breast cancer: practical guidance for prevention and treatment,” Annals of Oncology, vol. 22, no. 12, pp. 2546–2555, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  70. H. Eidtmann, R. de Boer, N. Bundred et al., “Efficacy of zoledronic acid in postmenopausal women with early breast cancer receiving adjuvant letrozole: 36-month results of the ZO-FAST Study,” Annals of Oncology, vol. 21, no. 11, pp. 2188–2194, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  71. A. Brufsky, G. Harker, J. Beck et al., “The effect of zoledronic acid on aromatase inhibitor-associated bone loss in postmenopausal women with early breast cancer receiving adjuvant letrozole: the z-fast study 5-year final follow-up,” Cancer Research, vol. 69, pp. 733-734, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  72. A. Llombart, A. Frassoldati, O. Paija et al., “Immediate administration of zoledronic acid reduces aromatase inhibitorassociated bone loss in postmenopausal women with early breast cancer: 12-month analysis of the E-ZO-FAST trial,” Clinical Breast Cancer, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 40–48, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  73. S. L. Hines, B. Mincey, T. Dentchev et al., “Immediate versus delayed zoledronic acid for prevention of bone loss in postmenopausal women with breast cancer starting letrozole after tamoxifen-N03CC,” Breast Cancer Research and Treatment, vol. 117, no. 3, pp. 603–609, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  74. G. K. Ellis, H. G. Bone, R. Chlebowski et al., “Randomized trial of denosumab in patients receiving adjuvant aromatase inhibitors for nonmetastatic breast cancer,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 26, no. 30, pp. 4875–4882, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  75. Early Breast Cancer Trialists' Collaborative G, “Adjuvant bisphosphonate treatment in early breast cancer: Meta-analyses of individual patient data from randomised trials,” The Lancet, vol. 386, no. 10001, pp. 1353–1361, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  76. E. Amir, B. Seruga, S. Niraula, L. Carlsson, and A. Ocaña, “Toxicity of adjuvant endocrine therapy in postmenopausal breast cancer patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis,” Journal of the National Cancer Institute, vol. 103, no. 17, pp. 1299–1309, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  77. M. Baum, A. Buzdar, J. Cuzick et al., “Anastrozole alone or in combination with tamoxifen versus tamoxifen alone for adjuvant treatment of postmenopausal women with early-stage breast cancer: results of the ATAC (Arimidex, Tamoxifen Alone or in Combination) trial efficacy and safety update analyses,” Cancer, vol. 98, no. 9, pp. 1802–1810, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  78. D. Crivellari, Z. Sun, A. S. Coates et al., “Letrozole compared with tamoxifen for elderly patients with endocrine-responsive early breast cancer: The BIG 1-98 trial,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 26, no. 12, pp. 1972–1979, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  79. M. T. E. Puts, H. A. Tu, A. Tourangeau et al., “Factors influencing adherence to cancer treatment in older adults with cancer: a systematic review,” Annals of Oncology, vol. 25, no. 3, Article ID mdt433, pp. 564–577, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  80. P. Kardas, P. Lewek, and M. Matyjaszczyk, “Determinants of patient adherence: a review of systematic reviews,” Frontiers in Pharmacology, vol. 4, Article ID 91, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  81. G. F. Riley, J. L. Warren, L. C. Harlan, and S. A. Blackwell, “Endocrine therapy use among elderly hormone receptor-positive breast cancer patients enrolled in Medicare Part D,” Medicare and Medicaid Research Review, vol. 1, no. 4, pp. E1–E26, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  82. C. J. Ursem, H. B. Bosworth, R. A. Shelby, W. Hwang, R. T. Anderson, and G. G. Kimmick, “Adherence to adjuvant endocrine therapy for breast cancer: importance in women with low income,” Journal of Women's Health, vol. 24, no. 5, pp. 403–408, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  83. G. Kimmick, R. Anderson, F. Camacho, M. Bhosle, W. Hwang, and R. Balkrishnan, “Adjuvant hormonal therapy use among insured, low-income women with breast cancer,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 27, no. 21, pp. 3445–3451, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  84. D. L. Hershman, L. H. Kushi, T. Shao et al., “Early discontinuation and nonadherence to adjuvant hormonal therapy in a cohort of 8,769 early-stage breast cancer patients,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 28, no. 27, pp. 4120–4128, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus