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BioMed Research International
Volume 2018 (2018), Article ID 7030718, 14 pages
Research Article

From 4D Medical Images (CT, MRI, and Ultrasound) to 4D Structured Mesh Models of the Left Ventricular Endocardium for Patient-Specific Simulations

1IBiTech-bioMMeda, Department of Electronics and Information Systems, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium
2FEops NV, Ghent, Belgium
3Department of Cardiology, Ziekenhuis Oost-Limburg, Schiepse Bos 6, 3600 Genk, Belgium
4Division of Image Processing, Department of Radiology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, Netherlands

Correspondence should be addressed to Federico Canè

Received 25 August 2017; Revised 17 November 2017; Accepted 28 November 2017; Published 8 January 2018

Academic Editor: Hwa-Liang Leo

Copyright © 2018 Federico Canè et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


With cardiovascular disease (CVD) remaining the primary cause of death worldwide, early detection of CVDs becomes essential. The intracardiac flow is an important component of ventricular function, motion kinetics, wash-out of ventricular chambers, and ventricular energetics. Coupling between Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations and medical images can play a fundamental role in terms of patient-specific diagnostic tools. From a technical perspective, CFD simulations with moving boundaries could easily lead to negative volumes errors and the sudden failure of the simulation. The generation of high-quality 4D meshes (3D in space + time) with 1-to-1 vertex becomes essential to perform a CFD simulation with moving boundaries. In this context, we developed a semiautomatic morphing tool able to create 4D high-quality structured meshes starting from a segmented 4D dataset. To prove the versatility and efficiency, the method was tested on three different 4D datasets (Ultrasound, MRI, and CT) by evaluating the quality and accuracy of the resulting 4D meshes. Furthermore, an estimation of some physiological quantities is accomplished for the 4D CT reconstruction. Future research will aim at extending the region of interest, further automation of the meshing algorithm, and generating structured hexahedral mesh models both for the blood and myocardial volume.