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BioMed Research International
Volume 2018, Article ID 7314054, 10 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/7314054
Research Article

High Intraspecific Genetic Diversity of Nocardia brasiliensis, a Pathogen Responsible for Cutaneous Nocardiosis Found in France: Phylogenetic Relationships by Using sod and hsp65 Genes

1Research Group on “Bacterial Opportunistic Pathogens and Environment”, UMR Ecologie Microbienne, CNRS 5557, INRA 1418, UCBL, Université de Lyon, VetAgro Sup, Faculté de Pharmacie, 8 avenue Rockefeller, Lyon, France
2Centre International de Recherche en Infectiologie, INSERM U1111, CNRS UMR5308, ENS de Lyon, Team “Pathogenesis of Staphylococcal Infections”, Université de Lyon 1, Lyon, France
3Laboratoire de Bactériologie, Institut des Agents Infectieux, Centre de Biologie et Pathologie Nord, 103 grande rue de la Croix-Rousse, 69004 Lyon, France
4Departamento de Sistemas Biológicos, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Xochimilco, Calzada del Hueso 1100, 04960 Ciudad de México, Mexico
5Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Monterrey, NL, Mexico

Correspondence should be addressed to V. Rodriguez-Nava; rf.1noyl-vinu@avan-zeugirdor.acinorev

Received 9 February 2018; Accepted 31 March 2018; Published 20 May 2018

Academic Editor: Charles Spencer

Copyright © 2018 D. Kosova-Maali et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

This study aims at genetic characterization and phylogenetic relationships of Nocardia brasiliensis focusing by using housekeeping rrs, hsp65, and sodA genes. N. brasiliensis is the species responsible for 80% of cases of actinomycetoma, one form of cutaneous nocardiosis which occurs mainly in tropical regions reaching immunocompetent patients in which the disease can lead to amputation. We analyze 36 indigenous cases of N. brasiliensis that happened in France. Phylogenetic analysis targeting rrs gene showed no robustness at phylogenetic nodes level. However, the use of a concatenation of hsp65 and sodA genes showed that the tested strains surprisingly ranked in 3 well-defined genotypes. Genotypes 2 and 3 were phylogenetically closer to each other and both diverged from genotype 1 sustained by a high bootstrap of 81%. This last genotype hosts all the cases of pulmonary forms (3), the sole cerebral form, and almost all the cases of immunocompromised patients (3 out of 4). Moreover, excepting one of them, all the strains belonging to this group present a susceptibility to imipenem which is not the case in the other genotypes that rarely count among them strains being susceptible to this drug. The haplotype diversity (Hd) of hsp65 (0.927) and sodA (0.885) genes was higher than that of rrs (0.824). For this gene, we obtained 16 polymorphic sites whereas, for hsp65 and sodA genes, up to 27 and 29 were identified, respectively. This study reveals that these two genes have an important genetic discriminatory power for the evaluation of the intraspecies genetic variability of N. brasiliensis and they may be useful for identification purposes at species level. This study also reveals the possible existence of a new species harbored by genotype 1.