Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
BioMed Research International
Volume 2018 (2018), Article ID 7619092, 9 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/7619092
Review Article

Functional Assessment of Intermediate Vascular Disease

1Department of Internal Medicine, Cardiology Clinic, Medical University Sofia, Sofia, Bulgaria
2“Angel Kanchev” University of Ruse, Ruse, Bulgaria

Correspondence should be addressed to Teodora Yaneva-Sirakova; moc.liamg@avenay.arodoet

Received 7 June 2017; Revised 12 September 2017; Accepted 28 January 2018; Published 15 April 2018

Academic Editor: Gelin Xu

Copyright © 2018 Teodora Yaneva-Sirakova et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. M. Tendera, V. Aboyans, M. Bartelink, and etal., “ESC Guidelines on the diagnosis and treatment of peripheral artery diseases: Document covering atherosclerotic diseases of extracranial carotid and vertebral, mesenteric, renal, upper and lower extremity arteries. the task force on the diagnosis and treatment of peripheral artery diseases of the european society of cardiology (ESC),” European Heart Journal, vol. 32, no. 22, pp. 2851–2906, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  2. M. D. Gerhard-Herman, H. L. Gornik, C. Barrett et al., “2016 AHA/ACC Guideline on the Management of Patients With Lower Extremity Peripheral Artery Disease: Executive Summary: A Report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Clinical Practice Guidelines,” Circulation, vol. 135, no. 12, pp. e686–e725, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  3. S. J. Ridout, B. A. Parker, S. L. Smithmyer, J. U. Gonzales, K. C. Beck, and D. N. Proctor, “Age and sex influence the balance between maximal cardiac output and peripheral vascular reserve,” Journal of Applied Physiology, vol. 108, no. 3, pp. 483–489, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. R. J. Korthuis, “Skeletal Muscle Circulation,” Morgan & Claypool Life Sciences, 2011, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK57141/.
  5. P. Swartbol, H. Parsson, B. Thorvinger, and L. Norgren, “To what extent does peripheral vascular disease and hypertension predict renal artery stenosis?” International Angiology, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 109–114, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. K. E. Holley, J. C. Hunt, A. L. Brown Jr., O. W. Kincaid, and S. G. Sheps, “Renal artery stenosis. A clinical-pathologic study in normotensive and hypertensive patients,” American Journal of Medicine, vol. 37, no. 1, pp. 14–22, 1964. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. A. Viera and D. Neutze, “Diagnosis of secondary hypertension: An age-based approach,” American Family Physician, vol. 82, no. 12, pp. 1471–1478, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  8. M. M. Benjamin, P. Fazel, G. Filardo, J. W. Choi, and R. C. Stoler, “Prevalence of and risk factors of renal artery stenosis in patients with resistant hypertension,” American Journal of Cardiology, vol. 113, no. 4, pp. 687–690, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. A. T. Hirsch, Z. J. Haskal, N. R. Hertzer et al., “ACC/AHA 2005 guidelines for the management of patients with peripheral arterial disease (lower extremity, renal, mesenteric, and abdominal aortic): executive summary a collaborative report from the American association for vascular surgery/society for vascular surgery, society for cardiovascular angiography and interventions, society for vascular medicine and biology, society of interventional radiology, and the acc/aha task force on practice guidelines (writing Committee to develop guidelines for the management of patients with peripheral arterial Disease) endorsed by the American association of cardiovascular and pulmonary rehabilitation; national heart, lung, and blood institute; society for vascular nursing; transatlantic inter-society consensus; and vascular disease foundation,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 47, 2006. View at Google Scholar
  10. B. Drieghe, J. Madaric, G. Sarno et al., “Assessment of renal artery stenosis: Side-by-side comparison of angiography and duplex ultrasound with pressure gradient measurements,” European Heart Journal, vol. 29, no. 4, pp. 517–524, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. M. E. Safar, “Peripheral pulse pressure, large arteries, and microvessels,” Hypertension, vol. 44, no. 2, pp. 121-122, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. M. F. O'Rourke and M. E. Safar, “Relationship between aortic stiffening and microvascular disease in brain and kidney: cause and logic of therapy,” Hypertension, vol. 46, no. 1, pp. 200–204, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. G. E. Barnes, G. A. Laine, and P. Y. Giam, “Cardiovascular responses to elevation of intra-abdominal hydrostatic pressure,” American Journal of Physiology-Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology, vol. 17, no. 2, pp. R208–R213, 1985. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. P. B. Hansen and J. Schnermann, “Vasoconstrictor and vasodilator effects of adenosine in the kidney,” American Journal of Physiology-Renal Physiology, vol. 285, no. 4, pp. F590–F599, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. J. A. Mitchell, R. Subramanian, C. J. White et al., “Predicting blood pressure improvement in hypertensive patients after renal artery stent placement: Renal fractional flow reserve,” Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions, vol. 69, no. 5, pp. 685–689, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. J. A. Silva, A. W. Chan, C. J. White et al., “Elevated brain natriuretic peptide predicts blood pressure response after stent revascularization in patients with renal artery stenosis,” Circulation, vol. 111, no. 3, pp. 328–333, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. R. A. Ronden, A. J. Houben, A. G. Kessels, C. D. Stehouwer, P. W. De Leeuw, and A. A. Kroon, “Predictors of clinical outcome after stent placement in atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis: A systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies,” Journal of Hypertension, vol. 28, no. 12, pp. 2370–2377, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. R. M. Bruno and S. Taddei, “Renal denervation: A blunt weapon against isolated systolic hypertension?” European Heart Journal, vol. 38, no. 2, pp. 101–103, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. J. Rodriguez, J. Ibeas, L. Ribera, and etal., “Ischemic renal disease: revascularization or conservative treatment,” Nefrologia, vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 258–268, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  20. A. Vashist, E. N. Heller, E. J. Brown Jr., and I. A. Alhaddad, “Renal artery stenosis: A cardiovascular perspective,” American Heart Journal, vol. 143, no. 4, pp. 559–564, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. S. Koletsky and V. Rivera, “Factors determining the success or failure of nephrectomy in experimental renal hypertension,” Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine, vol. 76, pp. 54–65, 1970. View at Google Scholar
  22. G. Dorros, M. Jaff, L. Mathiak et al., “Four-year follow-up of Palmaz-Schatz stent revascularization as treatment for atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis,” Circulation, vol. 98, no. 7, pp. 642–647, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. J. Rundback, D. Sacks, K. Kent, and etal., “AHA councils on cardiovascular radiology, high blood pressure research, kidney in cardio-vascular disease, cardio-thoracic and vascular surgery, and clinical cardiology, and society of interventional radiology FDA device forum committee. Guidelines for reporting renal artery revascularization in clinical trials,” American Heart Association. Circulation, vol. 106, pp. 1572–1585, 2002. View at Google Scholar
  24. J.-P. Beregi, C. Mounier-Vehier, P. Devos et al., “Doppler flow wire evaluation of renal blood flow reserve in hypertensive patients with normal renal arteries,” CardioVascular and Interventional Radiology, vol. 23, no. 5, pp. 340–346, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. G. Manoharan, N. H. J. Pijls, N. Lameire et al., “Assessment of renal flow and flow reserve in humans,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 47, no. 3, pp. 620–625, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. N. J. Jones, E. R. Bates, S. J. Chetcuti, R. J. Lederman, and P. M. Grossman, “Usefulness of translesional pressure gradient and pharmacological provocation for the assessment of intermediate renal artery disease,” Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions, vol. 68, no. 3, pp. 429–434, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. R. Subramanian, C. J. White, K. Rosenfield et al., “Renal fractional flow reserve: A hemodynamic evaluation of moderate renal artery stenoses,” Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions, vol. 64, no. 4, pp. 480–486, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. J. Ka̧dziela, A. Januszewicz, A. Prejbisz et al., “Prognostic value of renal fractional flow reserve in blood pressure response after renal artery stenting (PREFER study),” Cardiology Journal, vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 418–422, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. B. Frauchiger, R. Zierler, R. O. Bergelin, J. A. Isaacson, and D. E. Strandness, “Prognostic significance of intrarenal resistance indices in patients with renal artery interventions: a preliminary duplex sonographic study,” Cardiovascular Surgery, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 324–330, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. S. Muthusamy, A. Kannan, B. Thajudeen, and etal., “Mild renal artery stenosis can induce renovascular hypertension and is associated with elevated renal vein renin secretion,” Seminars in Dialysis, vol. 28, no. 3, pp. 293–298, 2015. View at Google Scholar
  31. C. J. White, “Catheter-based therapy for atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis,” Circulation, vol. 113, no. 11, pp. 1464–1473, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. C. K. T. Farmer, J. Reidy, P. A. Kalra, G. J. R. Cook, and J. Scoble, “Individual kidney function before and after renal angioplasty,” The Lancet, vol. 352, pp. 1150-1151, 1998. View at Google Scholar
  33. M. Protasiewicz, K. Początek, R. Poręba et al., “Comparison of the renal hyperemic effects of papaverine and dopamine in patients with renal artery stenosis,” Journal of the American Society of Hypertension, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 9–14, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  34. W. F. Fearon, “Physiologic Assessment of Renal Artery Stenosis. Will History Repeat Itself?” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 48, no. 9, pp. 1856–1858, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. B. De Bruyne, G. Manoharan, N. H. J. Pijls et al., “Assessment of renal artery stenosis severity by pressure gradient measurements,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 48, no. 9, pp. 1851–1855, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. N. Kapoor, I. Fahsah, R. Karim, A. J. Jevans, and M. A. Leesar, “Physiological assessment of renal artery stenosis: Comparisons of resting with hyperemic renal pressure measurements,” Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions, vol. 76, no. 5, pp. 726–732, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. T. Murphy, Ch. Cooper, A. Matsumoto, and etal., “Renal artery stent outcomes. Effect of baseline blood pressure, stenosis severity and translesional pressure gradient,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 66, no. 22, pp. 2487–2494, 2015. View at Google Scholar
  38. G.-X. Fan, J.-C. Luo, Z. Zhou, Y.-Y. Wang, and J.-K. Wang, “Fractional flow reserve: From homeland to colony,” Chinese Medical Journal, vol. 129, no. 1, pp. 101–104, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. C. D. Liapis, P. R. Bell, and D. Mikhailidis, “ESVS guidelines. Invasive treatment for carotid stenosis: indications, techniques,” European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, vol. 37, supplement 4, pp. 1–19, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  40. P. B. Gorelick, K. S. Wong, H.-J. Bae, and D. K. Pandey, “Large artery intracranial occlusive disease: a large worldwide burden but a relatively neglected frontier,” Stroke, vol. 39, no. 8, pp. 2396–2399, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. B. Lernfelt, M. Forsberg, C. Blomstrand, D. Mellström, and R. Volkmann, “Cerebral atherosclerosis as predictor of stroke and mortality in representative elderly population,” Stroke, vol. 33, no. 1, pp. 224–229, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. O. Joakimsen, K. H. Bønaa, E. B. Mathiesen, E. Stensland-Bugge, and E. Arnesen, “Prediction of mortality by ultrasound screening of a general population for carotid stenosis: The Tromso Study,” Stroke, vol. 31, no. 8, pp. 1871–1876, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. C. Petersen, P. B. Peçanha, L. Venneri, E. Pasanisi, L. Pratali, and E. Picano, “The impact of carotid plaque presence and morphology on mortality outcome in cardiological patients,” Cardiovascular Ultrasound, vol. 4, article no. 16, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. E. Koklu, I. O. Yuksel, S. Arslan et al., “Predictors of symptom development in intermediate carotid artery stenosis,” Angiology, vol. 67, no. 7, pp. 622–629, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. S. Kasner, M. Chimowitz, M. Lynn, and etal., “Warfarin aspirin symptomatic intracranial disease trial investigators: Predictors of ischemic stroke in the territory of a symptomatic intracranial arterial stenosis,” Circulation, vol. 113, pp. 555–563, 2006. View at Google Scholar
  46. K. Illig, K. Ouriel, J. DeWeese et al., “Measurement of carotid bifurcation pressure gradients using the Bernoulli principle,” Cardiovascular Surgery, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 130–134, 1996. View at Google Scholar
  47. X. Qi, F. Zhou, and J. Wang, “Noninvasive assessment of cerebral artery stenosis from anatomic computed tomography angiography,” Postepy Kardiol Interwencyjnej, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 18–20, 2014. View at Google Scholar
  48. B. K. Lal, K. W. Beach, and D. S. Sumner, “Intracranial collateralization determines hemodynamic forces for carotid plaque disruption,” Journal of Vascular Surgery, vol. 54, no. 5, pp. 1461–1471, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. K. W. Beach, T. Hatsukami, P. R. Detmer et al., “Carotid artery intraplaque hemorrhage and stenotic velocity,” Stroke, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 314–319, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. Z. Teng, U. Sadat, A. J. Brown, and J. H. Gillard, “Plaque hemorrhage in carotid artery disease: Pathogenesis, clinical and biomechanical considerations,” Journal of Biomechanics, vol. 47, no. 4, pp. 847–858, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. Z. Li, V. Taviani, and J. H. Gillard, “The impact of wall shear stress and pressure drop on the stability of the atherosclerotic plaque,” in Proceedings of the 2008 30th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, pp. 1373–1376, Vancouver, BC, August 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  52. Y. Fukumoto, T. Hiro, T. Fujii et al., “Localized elevation of shear stress is related to coronary plaque rupture. A 3-dimensional intravascular ultrasound study with in-vivo color mapping of shear stress distribution,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 51, no. 6, pp. 645–650, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. Y.-J. Xue, P.-Y. Gao, Q. Duan, Y. Lin, and C.-B. Dai, “Preliminary study of hemodynamic distribution in patient-specific stenotic carotid bifurcation by image-based computational fluid dynamics,” Acta Radiologica, vol. 49, no. 5, pp. 558–565, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. Z.-Y. Li, T. Tang, J. U-King-Im, M. Graves, M. Sutcliffe, and J. H. Gillard, “Assessment of Carotid Plaque Vulnerability Using Structural and Geometrical Determinants,” Circulation Journal, vol. 72, no. 7, pp. 1092–1099, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. I. Cicha, A. Wörner, K. Urschel et al., “Carotid plaque vulnerability: A positive feedback between hemodynamic and biochemical mechanisms,” Stroke, vol. 42, no. 12, pp. 3502–3510, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. S. Meairs and M. Hennerici, “Four-dimensional ultrasonographic characterization of plaque surface motion in patients with symptomatic and asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis,” Stroke, vol. 30, no. 9, pp. 1807–1813, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. M. I. Liem, F. Kennedy, L. H. Bonati et al., “Einvestigations of carotid stenosis to identify vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque and determine individual stroke risk,” Circulation Journal, vol. 81, no. 9, pp. 1246–1253, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. F. Jashari, Carotid artery disease: plaque feature and vulnerability dissertation at UMEA, Universitet Sweden, Sweden.
  59. C. Stefanadis, C. Antoniou, D. Tsiachris, and P. Pietri, “Coronary Atherosclerotic vulnerable plaque: current perspectives,” Journal of the American Heart Association, vol. 6, no. 3, Article ID e005543, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  60. R. T. Lee and R. D. Kamm, “Vascular mechanics for the cardiologist,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 23, no. 6, pp. 1289–1295, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. D. Hingwala, C. Kesavadas, P. Sylaja, B. Thomas, and T. Kapilamoorthy, “Multimodality imaging of carotid atherosclerotic plaque: Going beyond stenosis,” Indian Journal of Radiology and Imaging, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 26–34, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. W. Brinjikji, J. Huston, A. A. Rabinstein, G.-M. Kim, A. Lerman, and G. Lanzino, “Contemporary carotid imaging: From degree of stenosis to plaque vulnerability,” Journal of Neurosurgery, vol. 124, no. 1, pp. 27–42, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. N. Tomura, T. Otani, M. Koga, and K. Ishiyama, “Correlation between severity of carotid stenosis and vascular reserve measured by acetazolamide brain perfusion single photon emission computed tomography,” Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases, vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 166–170, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. J. Rogg, M. Rutigliano, H. Yonas, D. W. Johnson, S. Pentheny, and R. E. Latchaw, “The acetazolamide challenge: imaging techniques designed to evaluate cerebral blood flow reserve,” American Journal of Neuroradiology, vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 803–810, 1989. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. A. Halliday, A. Mansfield, J. Marro, and etal., “MRC Asymptomatic Carotid Surgery Trial (ACST) Collaborative Group. Prevention of disabling and fatal strokes by successful carotid endarterectomy in patients without recent neurological symptoms: randomized controlled trial,” Lancet, vol. 363, no. 9420, pp. 1491–1502, 2004. View at Google Scholar
  66. A. Liu, H. Do, and G. Albers, “Hyperperfusion syndrome with hemorrhage after angioplasty for middle cerebral artery stenosis,” American Journal of Neurology, vol. 22, no. 8, pp. 1597–1601, 2001. View at Google Scholar
  67. M. Silvestrini, C. Altamura, R. Cerqua et al., “Ultrasonographic markers of vascular risk in patients with asymptomatic carotid stenosis,” Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow & Metabolism, vol. 33, no. 4, pp. 619–624, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  68. A. Gupta, H. Baradaran, A. D. Schweitzer et al., “Carotid plaque MRI and stroke risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis,” Stroke, vol. 44, no. 11, pp. 3071–3077, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. L. Hermus, G. M. Van Dam, and C. J. Zeebregts, “Advanced carotid plaque imaging,” European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, vol. 39, no. 2, pp. 125–133, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  70. J. R. Davies, J. H. F. Rudd, T. D. Fryer et al., “Identification of culprit lesions after transient ischemic attack by combined 18F fluorodeoxyglucose positron-emission tomography and high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging,” Stroke, vol. 36, no. 12, pp. 2642–2647, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  71. I. M. Loftus, A. R. Naylor, S. Goodall et al., “Increased matrix metalloproteinase-9 activity in unstable carotid plaques. A potential role in acute plaque disruption,” Stroke, vol. 109, no. 21, pp. 2554–2559, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  72. J.-O. Deguchi, M. Aikawa, C.-H. Tung et al., “Inflammation in atherosclerosis: Visualizing matrix metalloproteinase action in macrophages in vivo,” Circulation, vol. 114, no. 1, pp. 55–62, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  73. S. Sayed, G. W. Cockerill, E. Torsney, R. Poston, M. M. Thompson, and I. M. Loftus, “Elevated tissue expression of thrombomodulatory factors correlates with acute symptomatic carotid plaque phenotype,” European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, vol. 38, no. 1, pp. 20–25, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  74. A. R. Moody, R. E. Murphy, P. S. Morgan et al., “Characterization of complicated carotid plaque with magnetic resonance direct thrombus imaging in patients with cerebral ischemia,” Circulation, vol. 107, no. 24, pp. 3047–3052, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  75. V. Aboyans, J. Ricco, and M. Brtelink, “ESC Guidelines on the Diagnosis and Treatment of Peripheral Arterial Disease in collaboration with the European Society of Vascular surgery,” European Heart Journal, vol. 00, p. 60, 2017. View at Google Scholar
  76. T. Bragadeesh, I. Sari, M. Pascotto, A. Micari, S. Kaul, and J. R. Lindner, “Detection of peripheral vascular stenosis by assessing skeletal muscle flow reserve,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 45, no. 5, pp. 780–785, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  77. L. Norgren, W. R. Hiatt, J. A. Dormandy, M. R. Nehler, K. A. Harris, and F. G. R. Fowkes, “Inter-society consensus for the management of peripheral arterial disease (TASC II),” Journal of Vascular Surgery, vol. 45, no. 1, pp. S1–S67, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  78. G. Mahe, M. Kalra, P. Abraham, D. A. Liedl, and P. W. Wennberg, “Application of exercise transcutaneous oxygen pressure measurements for detection of proximal lower extremity arterial disease: A case report,” Vascular Medicine, vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 251–255, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  79. R. C. Sibley, S. P. Reis, J. J. MacFarlane, M. A. Reddick, S. P. Kalva, and P. D. Sutphin, “Noninvasive physiologic vascular studies: A guide to diagnosing peripheral arterial disease,” RadioGraphics, vol. 37, no. 1, pp. 346–357, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  80. E. Amarteifio, M.-A. Weber, S. Wormsbecher et al., “Dynamic contrast-enhanced ultrasound for assessment of skeletal muscle microcirculation in peripheral arterial disease,” Investigative Radiology, vol. 46, no. 8, pp. 504–508, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  81. R. Kundi, S. J. Prior, O. Addison, M. Lu, A. S. Ryan, and B. K. Lal, “Contrast-Enhanced ultrasound reveals exercise-induced perfusion deficits in claudicants,” Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, vol. 2, no. 1, 2017. View at Google Scholar
  82. H. Hioki, Y. Miyashita, T. Miura et al., “Diagnostic value of peripheral fractional flow reserve in isolated iliac artery stenosis: A comparison with the post-exercise ankle-brachial index,” Journal of Endovascular Therapy, vol. 21, no. 5, pp. 625–632, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  83. N. Murata, H. Aihara, Y. Soga et al., “Validation of pressure gradient and peripheral fractional flow reserve measured by a pressure wire for diagnosis of iliofemoral artery disease with intermediate stenosis,” Medical Devices: Evidence and Research, vol. 8, pp. 467–472, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  84. I. Sadiq, S. Chamakura, S. Siddiqi, R. Margey, and T. Azemi, “Use of fractional flow reserve in the assessment of chronic mesenteric ischemia,” Vascular Medicine, vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 182–188, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  85. J. M. Bacharach, “Use of fractional flow reserve in the assessment of chronic mesenteric ischemia,” Vascular Medicine, vol. 19, no. 3, article no 189, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus