Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
BioMed Research International
Volume 2018, Article ID 7914261, 10 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/7914261
Research Article

Relationship with Parents, Emotion Regulation, and Callous-Unemotional Traits in Adolescents’ Internet Addiction

1Department of Psychological, Humanistic and Territorial Sciences, University “G. d’Annunzio”, Chieti, Italy
2Department of Human and Social Sciences, Université de la Vallée d’Aoste, Italy
3Department of Developmental and Social Psychology, Sapienza University of Rome, Italy

Correspondence should be addressed to Carmen Trumello; ti.hcinu@ollemurt.c

Received 15 December 2017; Revised 13 March 2018; Accepted 12 April 2018; Published 23 May 2018

Academic Editor: Carlos A. Almenara

Copyright © 2018 Carmen Trumello et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. R. Baiocco, F. Laghi, M. Carotenuto, and C. Del Miglio, “Amicizia on-line: disimpegno o stimolazione,” Psicologia Clinica dello Sviluppo, vol. 2, pp. 336–352, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  2. L. Cerniglia, F. Zoratto, S. Cimino, G. Laviola, M. Ammaniti, and W. Adriani, “Internet Addiction in adolescence: Neurobiological, psychosocial and clinical issues,” Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, vol. 76, pp. 174–184, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. L. Cerniglia, “Brief considerations on internet use in adolescence,” EC Psychology and Psychiatry, no. 1, pp. 10-11, 2017. View at Google Scholar
  4. S. M. Gainsbury, “Online gambling addiction: the relationship between internet gambling and disordered gambling,” Current Addiction Reports, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 185–193, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  5. E. C. Tzavela, C. Karakitsou, M. Dreier et al., “Processes discriminating adaptive and maladaptive Internet use among European adolescents highly engaged online,” Journal of Adolescence, vol. 40, pp. 34–47, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. H.-M. Sinkkonen, H. Puhakka, and M. Meriläinen, “Internet use and addiction among Finnish Adolescents (15–19 years),” Journal of Adolescence, vol. 37, no. 2, pp. 123–131, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. I. Reiner, A. N. Tibubos, J. Hardt, K. W. Müller, K. Wölfling, and M. E. Beutel, “Peer attachment, specific patterns of internet use and problematic internet use in male and female adolescents,” European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, vol. 26, no. 10, pp. 1257–1268, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. R. S. Tokunaga and S. A. Rains, “An evaluation of two characterizations of the relationships between problematic internet use, time spent using the internet, and psychosocial problems,” Human Communication Research, vol. 36, no. 4, pp. 512–545, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. M. Israelashvili, T. Kim, and G. Bukobza, “Adolescents' over-use of the cyber world - Internet addiction or identity exploration?” Journal of Adolescence, vol. 35, no. 2, pp. 417–424, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. M. K. Chang and S. P. M. Law, “Factor structure for Young's Internet addiction test: a confirmatory study,” Computers in Human Behavior, vol. 24, no. 6, pp. 2597–2619, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. R. Baiocco, M. Manca, A. Couyoumdjian, R. Cerruti, and C. Del Miglio, “Uso e abuso di internet in adolescenza: quale relazione con i disturbi psicosomatici?” Psicotech, vol. 2, pp. 47–60, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  12. D. J. Kuss, A. J. Van Rooij, G. W. Shorter, M. D. Griffiths, and D. Van De Mheen, “Internet addiction in adolescents: Prevalence and risk factors,” Computers in Human Behavior, vol. 29, no. 5, pp. 1987–1996, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. L. Milani, G. La Torre, M. Fiore et al., “Internet gaming addiction in adolescence: risk factors and maladjustment correlates,” International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. L. Sideli, C. La Cascia, C. Sartorio et al., “Internet out of control: The role of self-esteem and personality traits in pathological internet use,” Clinical Neuropsychiatry, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 88–93, 2017. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. S. K. Park, J. Y. Kim, and C. B. Cho, “Prevalence of internet addiction and correlations with family factors among South Korean adolescents,” Family Therapy, vol. 36, no. 3, pp. 163–177, 2009. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. M. D. Griffiths, “Social networking addiction: emerging themes and issues,” Journal of Addiction Research & Therapy, vol. 4, no. 5, article e118, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  17. G. S. O'Keeffe and K. Clarke-Pearson, “The Impact of Social Media on Children, Adolescents, and Families,” Pediatrics, vol. 127, no. 4, pp. 800–804, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  18. J. Billieux, P. Maurage, O. Lopez-Fernandez, D. J. Kuss, and M. D. Griffiths, “Can disordered mobile phone use be considered a behavioral addiction? An update on current evidence and a comprehensive model for future research,” Current Addiction Reports, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 156–162, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  19. J. J. Block, “Issues for DSM-V: Internet addiction,” The American Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 165, no. 3, pp. 306-307, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. M. Mihajlov and L. Vejmelka, “Internet addiction: A review of the first twenty years,” Psychiatria Danubina, vol. 29, no. 3, pp. 260–272, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. R. S. Tokunaga, “A meta-analysis of the relationships between psychosocial problems and internet habits: Synthesizing internet addiction, problematic internet use, and deficient self-regulation research,” Communication Monographs, vol. 84, no. 4, pp. 423–446, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. R. LaRose, C. A. Lin, and M. S. Eastin, “Unregulated Internet usage: Addiction, habit, or deficient self-regulation?” Media Psychology, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 225–253, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. C. Flisher, “Getting plugged in: An overview of Internet addiction,” Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health, vol. 46, no. 10, pp. 557–559, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  24. M. M. Spada, “An overview of problematic Internet use,” Addictive Behaviors, vol. 39, no. 1, pp. 3–6, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  25. H. C. Fox, S. R. Axelrod, P. Paliwal, J. Sleeper, and R. Sinha, “Difficulties in emotion regulation and impulse control during cocaine abstinence,” Drug and Alcohol Dependence, vol. 89, no. 2-3, pp. 298–301, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. B. Kun and Z. Demetrovics, “Emotional intelligence and addictions: a systematic review,” Substance Use & misuse, vol. 45, no. 7-8, pp. 1131–1160, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. S. E. Caplan, “Theory and measurement of generalized problematic Internet use: A two-step approach,” Computers in Human Behavior, vol. 26, no. 5, pp. 1089–1097, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. S. Casale, S. E. Caplan, and G. Fioravanti, “Positive metacognitions about Internet use: The mediating role in the relationship between emotional dysregulation and problematic use,” Addictive Behaviors, vol. 59, pp. 84–88, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. J. M. Hormes, B. Kearns, and C. A. Timko, “Craving Facebook? Behavioral addiction to online social networking and its association with emotion regulation deficits,” Addiction, vol. 109, no. 12, pp. 2079–2088, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. J. J. Gross, J. M. Richards, and O. P. John, “Emotion regulation in everyday life,” in Emotion Regulation in Families: Pathways to Dysfunction and Health, D. K. Snyder, J. A. Simpson, and J. N. Hughes, Eds., pp. 13–35, American Psychological Association, Washington, DC, USA, 2006. View at Google Scholar
  31. W. G. Parrott, “Beyond hedonism: motives for inhibiting good moods and for maintaining bad moods,” in Handbook of Mental Control, D. M. Wegner and J. W. Pennebaker, Eds., pp. 278–308, Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, USA, 1993. View at Google Scholar
  32. J. J. Gross, “Emotion regulation: affective, cognitive, and social consequences,” Psychophysiology, vol. 39, no. 3, pp. 281–291, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. J. J. Yu, H. Kim, and I. Hay, “Understanding adolescents' problematic Internet use from a social/cognitive and addiction research framework,” Computers in Human Behavior, vol. 29, no. 6, pp. 2682–2689, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. M. M. Spada and C. Marino, “Metacognitions and emotion regulation as predictors of problematic internet use in adolescents,” Clinical Neuropsychiatry, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 59–63, 2017. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. A. Babore, C. Trumello, C. Candelori, M. Paciello, and L. Cerniglia, “Depressive symptoms, self-esteem and perceived parent-child relationship in early adolescence,” Frontiers in Psychology, vol. 7, article 982, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. A. Babore, L. Carlucci, F. Cataldi, V. Phares, and C. Trumello, “Aggressive behaviour in adolescence: Links with self-esteem and parental emotional availability,” Social Development, vol. 26, no. 4, pp. 740–752, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. I. Hay and A. Ashman, “Self-concept,” in Encyclopedia of Adolescence, R. J. Levesque, Ed., pp. 2516–2536, Springer, New York, NY, USA, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  38. J. J. Yu and W. C. Gamble, “Familial correlates of overt and relational aggression between young adolescent siblings,” Journal of Youth and Adolescence, vol. 37, no. 6, pp. 655–673, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. J. J. Yu and W. C. Gamble, “Adolescent relations with their mothers, siblings, and peers: An exploration of the roles of maternal and adolescent self-criticism,” Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, vol. 38, no. 5, pp. 672–683, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. J. J. Yu and W. C. Gamble, “Direct and moderating effects of social affordances on school involvement and delinquency among young adolescents,” Journal of Research on Adolescence, vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 811–824, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. R. A. Davis, “A cognitive-behavioral model of pathological Internet use,” Computers in Human Behavior, vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 187–195, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  42. C.-Y. Liu and F.-Y. Kuo, “A study of Internet addiction through the lens of the interpersonal theory,” Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, vol. 10, no. 6, pp. 799–804, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. J. Y. Yen, C. F. Yen, C. C. Chen, S. H. Chen, and C. H. Ko, “Family factors of internet addiction and substance use experience in Taiwanese adolescents,” CyberPsychology & Behavior, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 323–331, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  44. H. Xiuqin, Z. Huimin, L. Mengchen, W. Jinan, Z. Ying, and T. Ran, “Mental health, personality, and parental rearing styles of adolescents with internet addiction disorder,” Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 401–406, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. J. J. Lum and V. Phares, “Assessing the emotional availability of parents,” Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, vol. 27, no. 3, pp. 211–226, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. Z. Biringen, “Emotional availability: Conceptualization and research findings,” American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, vol. 70, no. 1, pp. 104–114, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. T. D. Wall, P. J. Frick, K. A. Fanti, E. R. Kimonis, and A. Lordos, “Factors differentiating callous-unemotional children with and without conduct problems,” Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, vol. 57, no. 8, pp. 976–983, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. E. Romero and C. Alonso, “Callous-unemotional traits and the five factor model in adolescents,” Personality and Individual Differences, vol. 106, pp. 268–274, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. J. V. Ray, P. J. Frick, L. C. Thornton, T. D. Wall Myers, L. Steinberg, and E. Cauffman, “Callous-unemotional traits predict self-reported offending in adolescent boys: The mediating role of delinquent peers and the moderating role of parenting practices,” Developmental Psychology, vol. 53, no. 2, pp. 319–328, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. E. R. Kimonis, P. J. Frick, J. L. Skeem et al., “Assessing callous-unemotional traits in adolescent offenders: Validation of the Inventory of Callous-Unemotional Traits,” International Journal of Law and Psychiatry, vol. 31, no. 3, pp. 241–252, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. A. Roose, P. Bijttebier, S. Decoene, L. Claes, and P. J. Frick, “Assessing the affective features of psychopathy in adolescence: A further validation of the inventory of callous and unemotional traits,” Assessment, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 44–57, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. E. Ciucci, A. Baroncelli, M. Franchi, F. N. Golmaryami, and P. J. Frick, “The association between callous-unemotional traits and behavioral and academic adjustment in children: Further validation of the inventory of callous-unemotional traits,” Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, vol. 36, no. 2, pp. 189–200, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. S. Oshukova, R. Kaltiala-Heino, M. Kaivosoja, and N. Lindberg, “Self-assessed limited prosocial emotions do not distinguish community youth with psychosocial problems from those without them,” Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 71, no. 2, pp. 126–130, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. E. Viding and E. J. McCrory, “Why should we care about measuring callous-unemotional traits in children?” The British Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 200, no. 3, pp. 177-178, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. P. J. Frick, J. V. Ray, L. C. Thornton, and R. E. Kahn, “Annual research review: A developmental psychopathology approach to understanding callous-unemotional traits in children and adolescents with serious conduct problems,” Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, vol. 55, no. 6, pp. 532–548, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. A. Babore, L. Picconi, C. Candelori, and C. Trumello, “The emotional relationship with parents: A validation study of the LEAP among Italian adolescents,” European Journal of Developmental Psychology, vol. 11, no. 6, pp. 728–739, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. A. Babore, C. Candelori, and L. Picconi, “Parental emotional availability in adolescence: preliminary data from the validation of the Lum Emotional Availability of Parents (LEAP),” Psicologia Clinica dello Sviluppo, vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 639–649, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. J. J. Gross and O. P. John, “Individual differences in two emotion regulation processes: implications for affect, relationships, and well-being,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, vol. 85, no. 2, pp. 348–362, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. S. Balzarotti, O. P. John, and J. J. Gross, “An Italian adaptation of the emotion regulation questionnaire,” European Journal of Psychological Assessment, vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 61–67, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. P. J. Frick, E. R. Kimonis, D. M. Dandreaux, and J. M. Farell, “The 4 year stability of psychopathic traits in non-referred youth,” Behavioral Sciences & the Law, vol. 21, no. 6, pp. 713–736, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. R. D. Hare and C. S. Neumann, “Psychopathy as a clinical and empirical construct,” Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, vol. 4, pp. 217–246, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. G. Christo, S. L. Jones, S. Haylett, G. M. Stephenson, R. M. H. Lefever, and R. Lefever, “The shorter PROMIS Questionnaire: further validation of a tool for simultaneous assessment of multiple addictive behaviours,” Addictive Behaviors, vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 225–248, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. A. Couyoumdjian, R. Baiocco, and C. Del Miglio, Adolescenti e Nuove Dipendenze, Laterza, Roma, Italy, 2006.
  64. J. Cohen and P. Cohen, Applied Multiple Regression/Correlation Analysis for the Behavioral Sciences, Erlbaum, Hillsdale, NJ, USA, 1983.
  65. J. Cohen, P. Cohen, S. G. West, and L. S. Aiken, Applied Multiple Regression/Correlation Analysis for the Behavioral Sciences, Routledge, Hillsdale, NJ, USA, 2013.
  66. Y. Khazaal, J. Billieux, G. Thorens et al., “French validation of the internet addiction test,” CyberPsychology & Behavior, vol. 11, no. 6, pp. 703–706, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  67. P. S. Gamito, D. G. Morais, J. G. Oliveira, R. Brito, P. J. Rosa, and M. G. De Matos, “Frequency is not enough: Patterns of use associated with risk of Internet addiction in Portuguese adolescents,” Computers in Human Behavior, vol. 58, pp. 471–478, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  68. J. J. Gross, “Antecedent- and response-focused emotion regulation: Divergent consequences for experience, expression, and physiology.,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, vol. 74, no. 1, pp. 224–237, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  69. L. R. N. Schreiber, J. E. Grant, and B. L. Odlaug, “Emotion regulation and impulsivity in young adults,” Journal of Psychiatric Research, vol. 46, no. 5, pp. 651–658, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  70. M. M. Spada, B. Langston, A. V. Nikčević, and G. B. Moneta, “The role of metacognitions in problematic Internet use,” Computers in Human Behavior, vol. 24, no. 5, pp. 2325–2335, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  71. P. Jeammet, “La violence à l’adolescence: une défense identitaire,” Neuropsychiatrie de l'Enfance et de l'Adolescence, vol. 50, no. 6-7, pp. 434–441, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  72. T. Chung, “Adolescent substance use: symptoms and course,” in Principles of Addiction: Comprehensive Addictive Behaviors and Disorders, P. E. Miller, Ed., vol. 1, pp. 97–106, Elsevier, San Diego, Calif, USA, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  73. L. Cerniglia, S. Cimino, G. Ballarotto et al., “Motor vehicle accidents and adolescents: an empirical study on their emotional and behavioral profiles, defense strategies and parental support,” Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, vol. 35, pp. 28–36, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  74. S. Guarino and L. Vismara, “Mental state of attachment and reflective function in a group of antisocial adolescents,” Psicologia Clinica dello Sviluppo, vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 579–598, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  75. B. T. Wymbs, C. A. McCarty, K. M. King et al., “Callous-unemotional traits as unique prospective risk factors for substance use in early adolescent boys and girls,” Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, vol. 40, no. 7, pp. 1099–1110, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  76. D. Carlotta, R. F. Krueger, K. E. Markon et al., “Adaptive and maladaptive personality traits in high-risk gamblers,” Journal of Personality Disorders, vol. 29, no. 3, pp. 378–392, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  77. M. R. Dadds, N. Gale, M. Godbee et al., “Expression and regulation of attachment-related emotions in children with conduct problems and callous–unemotional traits,” Child Psychiatry & Human Development, vol. 47, no. 4, pp. 647–656, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  78. D. C. Bennett and P. K. Kerig, “Investigating the construct of trauma-related acquired callousness among delinquent youth: differences in emotion processing,” Journal of Traumatic Stress, vol. 27, no. 4, pp. 415–422, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  79. L. A. Schneider, D. L. King, and P. H. Delfabbro, “Family factors in adolescent problematic Internet gaming: a systematic review,” Journal of Behavioral Addictions, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 321–333, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  80. A. Besser and S. J. Blatt, “Identity consolidation and internalizing and externalizing problem behaviors in early adolescence,” Psychoanalytic Psychology, vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 126–149, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  81. C. McKinney, R. Donnelly, and K. Renk, “Perceived parenting, positive and negative perceptions of parents, and late adolescent emotional adjustment,” Child and Adolescent Mental Health, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 66–73, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  82. R. Tambelli, S. Cimino, L. Cerniglia, and G. Ballarotto, “Early maternal relational traumatic experiences and psychopathological symptoms: a longitudinal study on mother-infant and father-infant interactions,” Scientific Reports, vol. 5, Article ID 13984, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  83. J.-A. Lim, A. R. Gwak, S. M. Park et al., “Are adolescents with internet addiction prone to aggressive behavior? The mediating effect of clinical comorbidities on the predictability of aggression in adolescents with internet addiction,” Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, vol. 18, no. 5, pp. 260–267, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  84. A. Tsitsika, E. Critselis, A. Louizou et al., “Determinants of internet addiction among adolescents: a case-control study,” The Scientific World Journal, vol. 11, pp. 866–874, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  85. L. Milani, D. Osualdella, and P. Di Blasio, “Quality of interpersonal relationships and problematic internet use in adolescence,” Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, vol. 12, no. 6, pp. 681–684, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  86. F. Laghi, B. H. Schneider, I. Vitoroulis et al., “Knowing when not to use the Internet: Shyness and adolescents' on-line and off-line interactions with friends,” Computers in Human Behavior, vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 51–57, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  87. L. M. Cheung and W. S. Wong, “The effects of insomnia and internet addiction on depression in Hong Kong Chinese adolescents: An exploratory cross-sectional analysis,” Journal of Sleep Research, vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 311–317, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  88. M. Di Nicola, V. R. Ferri, L. Moccia et al., “Gender differences and psychopathological features associated with addictive behaviors in adolescents,” Frontiers in Psychiatry, vol. 8, article 256, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  89. The ESPAD Group, “Results from the European school survey project on alcohol and other drugs,” ESPAD Report 2015, European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA), Lisbon, Portugal, 2016. View at Google Scholar