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BioMed Research International
Volume 2018 (2018), Article ID 8545347, 27 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/8545347
Review Article

Isolation of Extracellular Vesicles: General Methodologies and Latest Trends

1Institute of Chemical Biology and Fundamental Medicine, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk 630090, Russia
2Meshalkin Siberian Federal Biomedical Research Center, Ministry of Public Health of the Russian Federation, Novosibirsk 630055, Russia

Correspondence should be addressed to Evgeniy A. Lekchnov; moc.liamg@vonhckel

Received 22 September 2017; Accepted 28 December 2017; Published 30 January 2018

Academic Editor: Adriano Casulli

Copyright © 2018 Maria Yu. Konoshenko et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Background. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) play an essential role in the communication between cells and transport of diagnostically significant molecules. A wide diversity of approaches utilizing different biochemical properties of EVs and a lack of accepted protocols make data interpretation very challenging. Scope of Review. This review consolidates the data on the classical and state-of-the-art methods for isolation of EVs, including exosomes, highlighting the advantages and disadvantages of each method. Various characteristics of individual methods, including isolation efficiency, EV yield, properties of isolated EVs, and labor consumption are compared. Major Conclusions. A mixed population of vesicles is obtained in most studies of EVs for all used isolation methods. The properties of an analyzed sample should be taken into account when planning an experiment aimed at studying and using these vesicles. The problem of adequate EVs isolation methods still remains; it might not be possible to develop a universal EV isolation method but the available protocols can be used towards solving particular types of problems. General Significance. With the wide use of EVs for diagnosis and therapy of various diseases the evaluation of existing methods for EV isolation is one of the key problems in modern biology and medicine.