Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
BioMed Research International
Volume 2018 (2018), Article ID 8584136, 11 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/8584136
Review Article

Proanthocyanidins against Oxidative Stress: From Molecular Mechanisms to Clinical Applications

1Department of Dermatology, The Affiliated Hospital of Southwest Medical University, Luzhou 646000, China
2Department of Anatomy, Southwest Medical University, Luzhou 646000, China

Correspondence should be addressed to Jianqiao Zhong; moc.liamtoh@2367qjz

Lingyu Yang and Dehai Xian contributed equally to this work.

Received 11 December 2017; Accepted 14 January 2018; Published 12 March 2018

Academic Editor: Yan Huang

Copyright © 2018 Lingyu Yang et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Proanthocyanidins (PCs) are naturally occurring polyphenolic compounds abundant in many vegetables, plant skins (rind/bark), seeds, flowers, fruits, and nuts. Numerous in vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated myriad effects potentially beneficial to human health, such as antioxidation, anti-inflammation, immunomodulation, DNA repair, and antitumor activity. Accumulation of prooxidants such as reactive oxygen species (ROS) exceeding cellular antioxidant capacity results in oxidative stress (OS), which can damage macromolecules (DNA, lipids, and proteins), organelles (membranes and mitochondria), and whole tissues. OS is implicated in the pathogenesis and exacerbation of many cardiovascular, neurodegenerative, dermatological, and metabolic diseases, both through direct molecular damage and secondary activation of stress-associated signaling pathways. PCs are promising natural agents to safely prevent acute damage and control chronic diseases at relatively low cost. In this review, we summarize the molecules and signaling pathways involved in OS and the corresponding therapeutic mechanisms of PCs.