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BioMed Research International
Volume 2018 (2018), Article ID 9192104, 5 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/9192104
Review Article

Update of ALDH as a Potential Biomarker and Therapeutic Target for AML

1Department of Hematology, The Second Affiliated Hospital and Yuying Children’s Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, China
2Department of Rheumatology, The Second Affiliated Hospital and Yuying Children’s Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, China

Correspondence should be addressed to Hong Wang; moc.621@gnohgnawzw

Received 29 September 2017; Accepted 17 December 2017; Published 3 January 2018

Academic Editor: Anne Hamburger

Copyright © 2018 Xiangchou Yang et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Studies employing mouse transplantation have illustrated the role of aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) defining hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and leukemia stem cells (LSCs). Besides being a molecular marker, ALDH mediates drug resistance in AML, which induces poor prognosis of the patients. In AML patients, either CD34+ population or CD34+CD38 population was found to denote LSCs and minimal residual disease (MRD). A bunch of reagents targeting ALDH directly or indirectly have been evaluated. ATRA, disulfiram, and dimethyl ampal thiolester (DIMATE) are all shown to be potential candidates to open new perspective for AML treatment. However, inconsistent results have been shown for markers of LSCs, which makes it even more difficult to differentiate LSCs and HSCs. In this review, we elevated the role of ALDH to be a potential marker to define and distinguish HSCs and LSCs and its importance in prognosis and target therapy in AML patients. In addition to immunophenotypical markers, ALDH is also functionally active in defining and distinguishing HSCs and LSCs and offers intracellular protections against cytotoxic drugs. Targeting ALDH may be a potential strategy to improve AML treatment. Additional studies concerning specific targeting ALDH and mechanisms of its roles in LSCs are warranted.